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International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance. What can be learned from higher education ? By Michaela Martin. Structure of this presentation. Global trends in higher education New forms of mobility Quality assurance as a global movement International cooperation in QA

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international cooperation in recognition and quality assurance

International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance

What can be learned from

higher education ?

By Michaela Martin

structure of this presentation
Structure of this presentation
  • Global trends in higher education
  • New forms of mobility
  • Quality assurance as a global movement
  • International cooperation in QA
  • Bologna process as model for regional cooperation
1 global trends in higher education
1.Global trends in higher education
  • Increasing student numbers
  • Diversification of higher education provision
  • Privatisation
  • Growing levels of international mobility
    • Of students
    • Of programmes
    • Of institutions
  • Public provision does not meet demand
  • Asia : some countries more than 80 % of enrolments in private sector
  • Africa : private provision is expanding rapidly
  • Private higher education market ($300 billion world wide on current expenditure alone (IFC)
  • Growth of cross-border higher education
new forms of mobility 1
New forms of mobility (1)
  • Programme mobility
    • Joint study programmes
    • Franchized programmes
    • Double degree
    • Articulation
    • Validation
new forms of mobility 2
New forms of mobility (2)
  • Institutional
    • Branch campuses
    • Independent institutions
    • Acquisition/mergers
    • Affiliation/networks
    • Virtual university
the consequence is
The consequence is :

more complex and diversified higher education systems

loss of control of public authorities over parts of the HE system

more potential for academic fraud

credential evaluation more complex

increasing need for international collaboration in recognition and quality assurance

within this context
Within this context ….

Some 70 countries worldwide have put in place external quality assurance mechanisms

They respond to domestic concerns needs while trying to establish international comparability

Major concern also with strengthening internal quality assurance mechanisms

eqa covers different realities
EQA covers different realities
  • Quality audit
  • Quality assessment
  • Accreditation

Concepts are loosely used by agencies in reality

Accreditation is becoming the most common mechanism of EQA

justification for accreditation
Justification for accreditation
  • Maintain required standards
  • Guarantee qualifications awarded
  • Mechanism for quality enhancement
  • Readability of higher education provision
  • Portability of credentials (nat/int)
convergence of accreditation process
Convergence of accreditation process
  • Basic process elements
    • Self-study
    • Site visit/peer review
    • Reporting

thorough, however time-consuming and costly process

areas for assessment
Areas for assessment
  • Integrity and mission
  • Governance and management
  • Human resources
  • Learning resources and infrastructure
  • Financial management
  • Student profile and support services
  • Curricular aspects
  • Teaching-learning and evaluation
  • Research, consultancy and extension
  • Internal Quality assurance system
explaining convergence
Explaining convergence

Basic model for accreditation process stems from the US experience

Importance of international and regional networks

International co-operation and aid

international collaboration in quality assurance
International collaboration in quality assurance
  • As part of its work in recognition, UNESCO has established Global Forum on QA in 2003
  • Regional networks : ENQA, RIACES, APQN, CANTATE, AfriQua, etc
    • Exchange of experience
    • Codes of good practices for QA process
    • Capacity development (GIQAC)
ex european region
Ex : European region
  • Context : European Integration within the European Union
  • Bologna process : creation of a European HE space by 2015
  • Common qualifications structure
  • ECTS system
    • Facilitate student mobility
    • Based on student workload and LOs
    • 60 credits per year equivalent to 1500 to 1800 hours
ex european region1
Ex European region
  • Diploma supplement
    • Standardized description of nature, level, context content and status of a study programme
    • Including information on qualification holder, qualification, national higher education system
  • Quality assurance : one of the pillars of cooperation
  • ENQA : Guidelines for QA
  • Creation of a register of quality assurance agencies
ex africa
Ex : Africa
  • Africa is following the Bologna process
  • WAEMU and CAEMC (CEMAC) adopted directives to adopt bachelors-master’s-PhD structure
  • SADECC region has decided to establish a regional qualifications framework
  • African Union intends the creation of an African higher education space through harmonization of qualification structure
  • Strengthening of quality assurance systems (AfriQua)
  • Vision : creation of an African Qualifications Framework
  • Increased levels of student mobility push the need for strengthened mechanisms of recognition of HE credentials
  • Cross-border higher education creates strong pressure for the development of national QA systems
  • Regional integration processes provide a political framework for co-operation on QA and recognition
  • UNESCO plays an important role at the global level