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Vaccines in Immunobiology and Medicine. Folder title: Vaccines. Updated: December 06, 2011. VaccTtle. Immunology in Human and Animal Health and Disease. Why do we want to know about Immunology? What does it tells us about ourselves and about biology?

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vaccines in immunobiology and medicine

Vaccines inImmunobiologyandMedicine

Folder title: Vaccines

Updated: December 06, 2011

VaccTtle

immunology in human and animal health and disease
Immunology in Human and Animal Health and Disease

Why do we want to know about Immunology?

What does it tells us about ourselves and about biology?

What can it do for us?

As a tool in biomedical research?

As a diagnostic and therapeutic modality in clinical and veterinary medicine?

What can it do to us, as a source of pathology?

InHealth

immunology in human and animal health and disease3
Immunology in Human and Animal Health and Disease

What can we make it do for us?

ImmUse

key features of specific adaptive immunity in history
KEY FEATURES OF SPECIFIC ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY IN HISTORY

Freedom from Plague after

Surviving First Exposure

Immunity Exists

Susceptibility to Other Diseases

Even After Surviving Plague

Immunity is

Specific

Deliberately Induce Small-pox to

Protect Against Later Exposure

Immunity has

Memory

Induce Non-pathogenic Cow-pox

to Protect Against Virulent

Small-pox (Vaccination)

Related Antigens

are Cross-Reactive

Resistance to Chicken Cholera

after Surviving Exposure to Weakened Chicken Cholera Bacilli (Attenuated Vaccines)

Antigens can be

separated from

pathogenicity

ImHistry

vaccines in human and veterinary medicine
Vaccines in Human and Veterinary Medicine

What have they done for us?

What do we have now?

How do they work?

What don't we have?

Why not?

How can we get what we need?

How can we improve their immunogenicity?

Can vaccines for millions of healthy persons cause problems ?

Can we make them faster in response to changes in pathogens?

VacQuest

slide6

Oakwood Cemetery Burials Section 29 Survey by Tom Fondy 10-Nov-96

Filename: OakSec29.doc Age in

Name Born Died Years Remarks

Robbie Bonta 1868 1875 7 March 22, 1875, Age 6 yrs & 8 mos.; Son of Samuel

Katherine T. Bonta 1864 1945 81

Frank M. Bonta 1845 1939 94

Helen A. Plumb 1853 1886 33 Jan. 20, 1886; Wife of Frank M. Bonta

Laura J. Benner 1850 1876 25 Died Feb. 9, 1876; Wife of Frank M. Bonta

Samuel 1873 1874 1.5 Son of F & L Bonta; Aged 1 yr & 7 mos

George L. Bonta 1848 1922 74

H. Benner 1876 1888 12 Born Feb. 9, 1876 (See Laura S. Benner)

Blank Unk Unk Unk Next to H. Benner; Tombstone is Blank

Frankie L. Curtis 1864 1875 11 Born Sept. 22, 1864; Died Feb. 14, 1875

Frances B. Curtis 1844 1932 88

Nathan L. Curtis 1836 1922 86

Roger L. Jones 1872 1951 79

Mary C. Jones 1875 19??

Fannie Lathrop 1871 1879 8 Died Dec. 27, 1879; Age 8 yrs, 8 mos, 3 dys

Rachel Amelia Cody 1840 1840 0.1 d. August 8, 1840; Age 6 wks and 4 dys; Daughter of Narcissa & Niel? Cody

Unk Unk Faded (Could be Narcissa or Niel Cody)

Missing Unk Unk Unk

Unknown 1800 1883 83

George Chapman Lathrop 1811 1898 87

Unknown Unk Unk Unk Tombstone Toppled

George Nelson 1847 1849 2 Son of Benjamin & Permela Lathrop

George Chapman 4 Aged 3 yrs, 10 mos, 16 dys

Average Age: 43.1

Notes: 10 died aged 6 wks to 33 yrs. 50% of Identifiable Dates! 8 died aged 74 to 94.

See Verses by TPFondy at http://tpfondy.mysite.syr.edu/

Song of the Oakwood Children

Verses and Self-running Presentation

slide7

Song of the Oakwood Children

See Verses by TPFondy at http://tpfondy.mysite.syr.edu/

Verses and Self-running Presentation

slide8

Immunobiology Class Experiment

Oakwood Cemetery

Tombstones prior to 1900

(Left Half of Table)

Tombstones after 1940

(Right Half)

Summary of Results

Next Slide

slide9

Summary of Class Experiment: BIO 447 Immunobiology

Oakwood Cemetery Deaths by Age: 19th Century vs Post 1940

Prior to 1900After 1940

MedianMean0 to 15 yrs16 to 40 yrs Median Mean0 to 15 yrs16 to 40 yrs

50.6 54.3 15.2% 16.5% 67.3 70.8 2.2% 6.2%

48 out of 58 sections have child deaths 18 out of 58 sections have child deaths

55 out of 58 Sections have young adult deaths 35 out of 58 sections have young adult deaths

Approximately 180 deaths prior to age 15 Approximately 25 deaths prior to age 15

slide11
What Have Vaccines Done For Us?(See Figure 18-1 Kuby, 3rd Edition)Antiviral Vaccines, From Roitt, 4th Edition, Figure 19.3Data for U.S.

VacSave1

slide12
What Have Vaccines Done For Us?(See Figure 18-1 Kuby, 3rd Edition)Antiviral Vaccines, From Roitt, 4th Edition, Figure 19.3Data for U.S.

VacSave2

what have vaccines done for us
What Have Vaccines Done For Us?

Greatest Single Cause of Death for Humankind Since the Beginning of Civilization:

Smallpox

Deaths from Smallpox

1977 - 2004:

0

Smallpox

passive and active immune protection
Passive and Active Immune Protection

Passive: Transfer of Pre-existing Immune Response

Naturally from Mother to Child

Trans-placental

Breast Feeding

Artificially in Medical Treatment

Adoptive - Donor to Recipient

Usually Antibodies; Could be Lymphocytes

Anti-toxin Antibodies:

Treatments for toxins already present:

Rabies, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Botulinus Poisoning

Provides Limited Duration Prophylaxis

Active: Induce Immune Response Directly in Protected Individual

Pass&Act

active immunization prophylactic immunity based on immunological memory
Active ImmunizationProphylactic Immunity based on Immunological Memory

Controlled Artificial Infection

  • Active Disease-causing organism: Smallpox Pustule Exudates - Variolation
  • Cross-reactive related live organism: Vaccinia (cowpox virus) - Vaccination
  • Attenuated Live Organisms
  • Inactivated Killed Organisms
  • Inactivated Exotoxins - Diphtheria, Tetanus
  • Purified Macromolecular Antigens
  • Bacterial Capsular Polysaccharides
  • Membrane Antigens: Plasma Membrane or Virus Envelope
  • Cloned Antigenic Gene Products
  • Synthetic Antigens
  • Anti-idiotypic Antibodies (antigen mimics)
  • DNA vaccines

ActImmun

slide20

Vaccines based on active immunization have one big advantage over vaccines based on passive transfer of immunity.What is that big advantage?

0 of 5

slide21

Vaccines based on passive transfer of immunity have one big advantage over vaccines based on active immunization.What is that big advantage?

0 of 5

live attenuated vaccines
Live Attenuated Vaccines

Against Viral Diseases

  • Polio (Sabin Vaccine) - Also Use Killed Vaccine (Salk)
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Yellow Fever
  • Hepatitis A (Live and killed versions)

Against Bacterial Disease

  • Tuberculosis

LiveVacc

killed whole organism vaccines
Killed Whole Organism Vaccines

Against Viral Diseases

  • Polio (Salk Vaccine) - Also Use Attenuated Live Vaccine (Sabin)
  • Rabies
  • Influenza (strain-specific only)
  • Hepatitis A (Live and killed versions)

Against Bacterial Disease

  • Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
  • Typhoid
  • Cholera (combined with toxin subunit vaccine)
  • Plague (short-term protection only)
  • Pneumococcal Pneumonia

KillVacc

anti toxin vaccines
Anti-Toxin Vaccines

Formalin-inactivated exotoxin

Formalin-inactivated exotoxin

Exotoxin subunit (beta subunit)

Clostridium tetani

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Vibrio cholerae

AntiTox

diphtheria tetanus and cholera vaccines are directed toward a produced by the infectious organism
Diphtheria, tetanus, and cholera vaccines are directed toward a _ _ _ _ _ produced by the infectious organism

0 of 94

purified macromolecular antigen vaccines
Purified Macromolecular Antigen Vaccines

Capsular Polysaccharides –

Must Be Conjugated to Protein Carriers to Get Memory Responses

  • Hemophilus influenza B (Bacterial meningitis)
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

Recombinant Cell-Surface Antigen

  • Hepatitis B

PureAg

vaccines generally given to all
Vaccines Generally Given to All

Tetanus (Toxoid)

Diphtheria (Toxoid)

Pertussis (Killed virus)

  • Given Together as DPT; Periodic Boosters for Tetanus & Diphtheria Required
  • Polio (Killed or Attnenuated Live Virus)

Measles (Attenuated live virus)

Mumps (Attenuated live virus)

Rubella (Attenuated live virus)

Chicken Pox (Attenuated live Varicella Zoster)

Hemophilus Influenzae (Polysaccharide capsular component); For bacterial meningitis (not related to flu vaccine)

GenVacc

vaccines for groups at special risk
Vaccines for Groups at Special Risk

Tuberculosis (BCG) Depending on Locale and Travel

Hepatitis B (Recombinant Surface Ag)

  • Medical personnel; drug addicts; contacts

Rabies - Animal workers or post exposure

Influenza (Killed virus strains) - At risk and Elderly

Pneumococcal pneumonia (Killed bacteria) - Elderly

Meningitis (Capsular Polysaccharide) -

Yellow fever (Killed pathogen)

Typhoid (Killed pathogen)

Cholera (Mutant pathogen; Toxoid Subunit)

Hepatitis A (Killed or attenuated virus)

Varicella-zoster (Attenuated virus) -

SpecVacc

what vaccines don t we have
What Vaccines Don't We Have?

Viral Diseases

  • HIV - Presence of variants and Immunosuppression

Ignorance of immunogenic antigens to use

  • Herpes Viruses (Papilloma virus vaccine announced Fall, 2002)
  • Adenoviruses, Rhinoviruses - Multiple types

Bacterial Diseases

  • Staphylococci
  • Group A Streptococci
  • Mycobacterium leprae (Some benefit from BCG)
  • Treponema pallidum (syphilis)
  • Non-Hemophilus and Non-Neisseria Bacterial Menigitis

Fungal Pathogens

  • Candida
  • Pneumocystis

VacNeed1

more vaccines that we don t have
More Vaccines That We Don't Have

Protozoa

  • Malaria
  • Trypanosomiasis

Sleeping Sickness

Chagas Disease - Autoimmunity and Immunosupression

  • Leishmaniasis

Multicellular Parasites - Worms

  • Schistosomiasis

Prophylactic and Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines

VacNeed2

how can we get what we don t have
How Can We Get What We Don't Have?

Combination Epitope Vaccines

(Multivalent Subunit Vaccines )

Delivery Vehicles and Adjuvants

Anti-Idiotype Vaccines

Naked DNA Vaccines

Engineered Vector and

Antigen-presenting Cell Vaccines

Mucosal-Active (IgA Isotype) Vaccines

VaccsGet

non scientific problems with vaccines
Non-Scientific Problems with Vaccines

Medical Risks to Individuals vs "Herd Immunity"

Immediate Risks to the Individual

Long-term Benefits the the Group and the Individual

Very low percentage risks multiplied over huge populations

Side-Reactions, Limited Efficacy, Limited Duration

Costs and Ability to Pay

Geographical Distribution

"Orphan" and "Third World" Diseases

Limitations in Vaccine Production for Diseases with

High Rate of Strain Variation

Autonomy, Parental rights, Religious Freedom

Public Acceptance and Ignorance of History

Problems

risks from whooping cough disease pertussis vs risks from pertussis vaccine
Risks from Whooping Cough Disease(Pertussis) vs. Risks from Pertussis Vaccine

Whooping Cough Disease

Seizures: 1 in 25 to 1 in 50

Encephalytis: 1 in 1, to 4,000

Brain Damage: 1 in 2, to 8,000

Death: 1 in 200 to 1 in 1,000

Pertussis Vaccine

Seizures: 1 in 1,750

Encephalytis: 1 in 110,000

Brain Damage: 1 in 310,000

Death: 1 in 1,000,000

Difference in Death Rate:

Natural Exposure to Whooping Cough

vs Exposure to Pertussis Vaccine:

1,000-fold to 5,000-fold increased Risk

Whooping

slide35

View Animation on Textbook Web-site: (Linked to Course Home Page) - Vaccines

Survey of Oakwood Cemetery done by BIO 447 Class, 1999:

Section with Burials Prior to 1900 vs

Sections with Burials after 1940

Song of the Oakwood Children:

Rachel Amelia Cody, June 1840

slide36

(Your response is anonymous. No name will be recorded)With respect the use of Turning Point XR Transmitter system in BIO 447 and its contribution to the standards of the course:The next slide will ask what you think of how well the system works

  • Outstanding
  • Good
  • Acceptable
  • Poor
  • Terrible

Response Grid

0 of 94

slide37

(Your response is anonymous. No name will be recorded)With respect to how well the Turning Point XR Transmitter system works in the classroom:

  • It works outstandingly well
  • It works well
  • It is OK
  • It is pretty unreliable and hard to make work
  • It doesn’t work well at all

0 of 94

slide38

Anti-Idiotypic

Antibodies

(Figure 19.9, Roitt, 4th Edition)

IdioVacc