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Health is a complex phenomenon. It is a state of physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence o PowerPoint Presentation
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Health is a complex phenomenon. It is a state of physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence o

Health is a complex phenomenon. It is a state of physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence o

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Health is a complex phenomenon. It is a state of physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence o

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  1. Health is a complex phenomenon. It is a state of physical, mental & social well being and not merely the absence of disease

  2. HISTORY OF THE CARE OF CHILDREN Influenced by their importance in society “OFTEN VIEWED AS PROPERTY” Primitive times Ancient Greece Industrial Revolution 1700’s Father of Pediatrics = Abraham Jacobi milkstations for pure milk pasteurization not required until much later Late 1800’s first children’s hospital in Philadelphia Prevention of Cruelty to Children Society based on the Society of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 1909 First Pediatric White House Conference – still meet q 10 yrs.

  3. 1912 The Children’s Bureau was established under the jurisdiction of the Dept. of Labor – then Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare NOW called Dept. of Health & Human Services. This federal dept. it to: 1. Assist states in care of children 2. Support child welfare 3. Inform public of problems (unsafe toys, car seats, etc. In 1920’s World Health Organization (WHO) major concern being women & children’s health Now are many children’s advocate groups 1900’s isolate sick children 1940’s studies by Spitz & Robertson on the detrimental effects of isolation & maternal deprivation Even though knew the effect change was slow!

  4. Still changing our attitudes about care of children Immunizations 1955 Salk polio vaccine Nutritional advances Antibiotics (improving with not only types but not abusing them Control of infectious disease Patient/Parent education 20th century – focus shifts to prevention of illness health & social problems prevention of problems Healthy People 2000 now 2010 increase the span of healthy life for Americans reduce health disparities among Americans achieve access to preventive services for ALL Americans HEALTH PROMOTION, HEALTH PROTECTION, PREVENTIVE SEVICES

  5. TRENDS IN MATERNAL CHILD HEALTH NURSE’S ROLE = MULTIFACETED

  6. MORTALITY VS. MORBIDITY Prevalence of illness & disease over a period of time infections = most common childhood illnesses with respiratory infections as # 1 Morbidity denotes 3 things: 1. Acute illness 2. Chronic illness(a conditionthat persist for more than 30 days) 3. Disability (often measured in day off from school or days confined to bed. Can be result of acute or chronic illness. children under 17 over 95% are not disabled, 2% have mild, 2% have moderately and only 0.2% are severely (account for most $ spent) Morbidity much more difficult to define & measure than mortality

  7. NEW MORBIDITY: Problems besides disease or injury which affect child’s health Behavioral, social (family), educational problems

  8. Cigarette Use:Lifetime use (ever tried)……………….70.4%Daily use ……………………………..25.3% White students……………….29.3% Hispanic …………………….19.6% Black ………………………..11.2%Current cigarette, cigar, or smokeless tobacco use……………………………………..32.8%

  9. Births to: 19901998 teen moms 13% 13% ? single moms 28% 33% receiving late or no prenatal care 6% 4% moms who smoked in pregnancy 18% 13% low birth weight 7% 8% preterm birth 11% 12% mom less than 12th grade education 24% 22% teens already mother 24% 22% source: “The Right Start” Report

  10. Alcohol Lifetime Use………………….81.%Current Use of Alcohol………………..50%Episodic Heavy Use(>5drinks on >1day in last 30 days)……….32% Male…….34.9% Female…….28.1% White…………………..35.8% Hispanic………………32.1% Black………………….16%...

  11. 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey9.9% students overweight (BMI > 95th percentile) Males 11.9% Females 7.9%30% students thought they were overweight Males 23.7% Females 36.4%42% students trying to lose weight(in last month) Males 26.1% Females 59.4% 7.6% had taken diet pills or liquids4.8% had vomited or taken laxatives Males 2.2% Females 7.5%

  12. Infant Mortality1900 ……………… 200 per 10001940 ……………… 47 .. ..1960 ……………… 26 .. ..1982 ……………… 11.2 .. .. (Black infants - 25.7 per 1000)1998 ……………… 7.2 .. ..1999 (Illinois)…….. 8.3 .. .. Blacks in IL….. 17.4 ..Whites in IL…. 6.2 Leading Causes Infant Mortality:#1 Congenital Anomalies #2 R/T Prematurity and LBW#3 SIDS

  13. In 1998 7.2 % For whites 6.0% For blacks 13.8% For native Americans 9.3 %

  14. Leading Causes Death Ages 1-4(per 100,000 live births) Injuries …………………. #1 Motor Vehicle Accident #2 Drowning #3 Fires and Burns #4 FirearmsCongenital anomaliesCancer Homicide

  15. Leading Causes of Death Ages 10-24 per 100,000)Motor Vehicle Accidents……….31%Homicide………………………..18%Suicide…………………………..12%Leading Causes of Death Ages >24Cardiovascular disease ………….42%* Cancer……………………………24%**related to tobacco and drug use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, behaviors often established in adolescence

  16. Mortality from injuries: per 100,000 live birth TYPES OF INJURIES under 1 1-4 5-14 15-24 MALES: % of deaths 2.4% 42% 52% 51% Motor vehicle 5.2 6.8 9.1 55.5 Drowning 3.2 6.1 2.7 5.1 Fire & burns 3.1 5.9 1.3 1.2 Firearms 0.1 0.2 1.0 2.3 Ingestion of food/object 5 2 Mechanical suffocation 6.2 -- -- -- Falls -- 0.6 0.3 --- Poisoning -- -- -- 1.6 Females % of deaths: 2.6% 35% 41% 45% Motor vehicle 5.6 6.1 4.8 19.7 Drowning 2.3 3.5 0.7 0.6 Fire & Burns 3.1 3.9 1.0 0.6 WHY DO WE CARE ABOUT STATISTICS????

  17. Immunization (vaccination) is a means of triggering acquired immunity. This is a specialized form of immunity that provides long-lasting protection against specific antigens, such as certain diseases. Small doses of an antigen (such as dead or weakened live viruses) are given to activate immune system "memory" (specialized white blood cells that are capable of "recognizing" the antigen and quickly responding to its presence). • Four different types of vaccines are currently available. • Attenuated (weakened) live virus is used in the measles, mumps, rubella(MMR) vaccine and the varicella (chicken pox) vaccine. These vaccines last longer than other vaccines, but can cause serious infections in people with compromised immune systems. • Killed (inactivated) viruses or bacteria used in some vaccines. For example, the pertussis vaccine uses killed virus. These vaccines are safe even in people with compromised immune systems. • Toxoid vaccines contain a toxin produced by the bacterium or virus. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are actually toxoids. • Biosynthetic vaccines contain synthetic "man-made" substances. For example, the Hib (Haemophilus influenza type B) conjugate vaccine is a biosynthetic vaccine containing two antigens that are combined to form a "conjugate" molecule that triggers the immune system to produce antibodies that are effective against this disorder.

  18. A recommended immunization schedule for children includes: • Birth: HBV • 2 months: Polio, DTaP, Hib, HBV, Pneumococcus • 4 months: Polio, DTaP, Hib, Pneumococcus • 6 months: Polio, DTaP, Hib, HBV, Pneumococcus • 12 to 15 months: Hib, Pneumococcus, MMR, Varicella. The child may also be tested for TB. TEST at same time OR wait for 4-12 weeks before do skin test for TB because maybe chance for a false positive • 15 to 18 months: DTaP • 4 to 6 years: Polio, DPT, MMR (Note: MMR may be delayed to age 11 to 12) • 14 to 16 years: Td (repeat as a booster every 10 years) • A recommended immunization schedule for adults includes: • Tetanus/diphtheria: A primary immunization series should be given once (if not received as a child), then routine booster doses of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) should be given every 10 years.

  19. Know normal schedule How given Contraindication What to teach HepB = IM DTaP, Td = IM Hib = IM

  20. MMR = sub Q IF PG? If need TB skin test Wait 2 months after MMR If allergic to gelatin, Neomycin can’t get Varicella = sub Q IF PG? If allergic to gelatin, Neomycin can’t get PCV = IM

  21. IM PO ? IM now choice

  22. Sub Q Sub Q

  23. Sub Q IM Sub Q

  24. VACCINE INFORMATIONThe MMR vaccine is a "3-in-1" vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Although single antigen (individual) vaccines have been developed for each component of the MMR, they are not readily available and usually used only for very specific situations. An example of such a situation would be if an outbreak of either measles, mumps, or rubella was occurring in a specific community and public health officials deemed it necessary to immunize infants 6 to 12 months old. Single antigen vaccines might be used because they pose less risk to children younger than the recommended age of 12 months for the MMR. For children 12 months or older and adults, the risks of giving the single antigen vaccine are presumed to be the same as giving the MMR. The first shot is recommended at 12-15 months. Because the first shot may not provide adequate lifetime immunity to some individuals, a second MMR is recommended prior to school entry at 4-6 years or prior to entry into junior high at 11-13 years. Some states require a second MMR at kindergartenentry

  25. Varicella vaccine is recommended between the ages of 12 and 18 months. (see immunization schedule) If a teenager is not known to have had Chicken pox, then blood can be drawn to see if he or she is susceptable to the disease, and if so the vaccine should be administered. Varicella vaccine has become a recommended childhood vaccine and now required in many states including Illinois.

  26. NURSES'CAN FACILITATE ADJUSTMENT TO HOSPITALIZATION & POSTHOSPITALIZATION BY Introducing self, explain role in appropriate terms & length to child/parents Allow child to adjust to you, don’t rush in and start procedures. Possibly include doll, bear, toy. Observe child Compliment child on something, utilize home items ie. blankets, pacifers, toys,ete. Get on their level physically (eye level) Give choices you can live with Be honest, explain & prepare child for what will happen, what is exppcted. Do NOT lie if something is going to hurt. State things positively, ie. I need you to Watch words, ie. "It will be just a little stick in the arm." Especially with toddlers & preschoolers (even some young school age children). Remember toddlers have magical thinking and pre-schoolers have vivid imaginations. Let child see & handle equipment when possible, ie. BP cuffs, stethoscopes. Take BP on dous, stuffed animals,, etc.,, let them listen to their hearts, etc. or mo&s. Don’t forget privacy, Include Parent's, they are usually child's best advocate. Find out child!s vocab Rooming in for parents. Primary nursmg.

  27. SOME SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES Sometimes when ________ some people feel ______. Do you ever feel that way? OR before procedure prepare child in open way. Sometimes this feels like a pinch and sometimes it doesn't bother people. You tell me what it feels like to you. Choice of shot (GUN) or injection on R or L hip, thigh, etc. "Medication given through the needle into the body to make you feel better. Drawing, crayons and paper very important Use power of suggestion, ie. if for pain, "this medicine will take the hurt away." "I need you to ........ "It is OK to cry but I need you to hold very still and not move." Avoid giving NEGATIVE suggestion. PRAISE!!!! Use band aids, stickers, rewards, What if T_ , paper dolls to illustrate where something hurts, where procedure is going to take place, etc. Writings, Have child keep diary or daily log. Play: Provides diversion, relaxation, security. allows expression of feelings allows creative expression and often increases coping ability Stay with child during and after procedures! Praise! Comfort! Involve parent/significant person in procedure ?? At least in the comfort afterwards. KEEP PARENT INFORMED! INCLUDE PARENT! UTILIZE PARENT THEY ARE THE EXPERT IN TIHEIR CHILD’S ACTIONS AND COPING ABILITY

  28. NURSES'HAVE THE DUTY TO ALSO MAXIMIZE THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF HOSPITALIZATION. NURSES'HAVE A WONDERFUL OPPORTUNITY TO FACILITATE POSITIVE CHANGE WITHIN THE CHILD AND AMONG THE FAMILY MEMBERS. THESE MAY INCLUDE: -Fostering or possibly improving parent-child relationship -Providing educational opportunities to learn more about their bodies, each other and even what health professionals do, immunization schedules, proper nutrition, exercise, general health maintenance, preventing problems. -Promote self mastery ---- emphasize child's competence and avoid paying attention to the negative behavior. Although hospitalization is usually stressftd, point out how well child/parent are coping. -- PRAISE! -Provide increase socialization, self help groups when appropriate, ie. new diabetic, asthmatic, etc -Provide opportunity to master new procedures, ie. home meds, new procedures such as postural draining, inhalers, etc.

  29. NURSES'HAVE THE DUTY TO ALSO MAXIMIZE THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF HOSPITALIZATION. NURSES'HAVE A WONDERFUL OPPORTUNITY TO FACILITATE POSITIVE CHANGE WITHIN THE CHILD AND AMONG THE FAMILY MEMBERS. THESE MAY INCLUDE: -Fostering or possibly improving parent-child relationship -Providing educational opportunities to learn more about their bodies, each other and even what health professionals do, immunization schedules, proper nutrition, exercise, general health maintenance, preventing problems. -Promote self mastery ---- emphasize child's competence and avoid paying attention to the negative behavior. Although hospitalization is usually stressftd, point out how well child/parent are coping. -- PRAISE! -Provide increase socialization, self help groups when appropriate, ie. new diabetic, asthmatic, etc -Provide opportunity to master new procedures, ie. home meds, new procedures such as postural draining, inhalers, etc.

  30. SIBLINGS OF HOSPITALIZED OR ILL CHILD FEAR (maybe me next!, or is my brother/sister going to die) GUILT ( why not me?, or I did or caused this to happen!) JEALOUSY (IR child is getting all the attention, new toys, is loved more) CONFUSION IMAGINATION (may make things worse in their own minds) ANGER - RESENTMENT THEIR BEHAVIOR MAY BE: WUMRAWN ACTING OUT DEPRESSION REGRESSION TEARFUL, CLINGS TO PARENT OR COMBINATION OF ANY OR ALL PARENTS MAY ALSO EXPERIENCE: FEAR GUILT ANGER (MAY BE DISPLACED ONTO HOSPITAL STAFF

  31. Separation anxiety

  32. POST HOSPITAL BE14AVIOR MAY INCLUDE: Aloofness from parents Dependant, clingy, demanding Sleep disturbances Hyperactivity Eating disturbances Regression Anger Jealous of siblings. Fighting with siblings. These are due to a nwnber of reasons, some include; separation from significant people, familiar surroundings lack of opportunity to form new attachments or to keep existing ones strange environment fear of having to return to the hospital/doctor Other influences are length and type of hospitalization Encourage parent to try to ignore negative/regressive behavior. Stress the positive behavior. THIS TOO SHALL PASS!!

  33. Some hospitals use a form similar to this one. Most also add meaning to the child’s vocabulary Forms that I have cover: from newborn to 24 months, covering each months & what to expect or milestones.

  34. ASSESSMENT ON ADMISSION IS VIP Discover norm routine – bath, naps, play norm comfort measures – pacifiers, blanket, favorite toys Child’s vocabulary – words for drink, bathroom, ect. Vaccinations New milestones – general growth & developmental. Is it nomal? If possible pre-admission classes – benefit both parents & child Utilize minimal contact initially – WHY ? Observe – What? Why? Incorporate parents WHY ? Utilize common tools such as? Vital signs Color – posture – interaction with parents Developmentally – is he where he should be Growth charts, Immunization charts, snellen E or picture charts Denver Developmental

  35. To test visual acuity in children who do not yet read and therefore cannot use the standard Snellen Eye Chart of alphabet letters, the eye care professional will use a chart in which the letter E is headed up, down, left and right. The child can then point in the same direction as the prongs of the E. What is the Snellen Eye Chart? The Snellen Chart is made up of a series of letters, numbers or symbols of progressively smaller size, the largest at the top. "Normal" vision is 20/20. A person who can clearly read a one-inch letter at a distance of 20 feet is considered to have normal vision. All measurements obtained from use of the Snellen Chart are a comparison to that standard. Persons who have 20/40 vision, for example, can read at 20 feet what people with normal vision can read at 40 feet. Snellen E or Blackbird Chart for kids who do not read or know letters

  36. Under the age of 2 years Head circumferences – above eyebrows & pinna & around occipital prominence Each visit until 2yrs, then yearly until school age, then PRN

  37. After age 2 & plot on graph

  38. Plot each visit regardless if hospital of doctor’s visit

  39. Look at plotted Growth curve Look at parents size