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Monitoring and Evaluation: HIV/AIDS Programs. Learning Objectives. At the end of this session, participants will be able to: Identify M&E implications of the global HIV/AIDS program context Identify M&E and information systems implications of the HIV/AIDS program environment

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives

At the end of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Identify M&E implications of the global HIV/AIDS program context
  • Identify M&E and information systems implications of the HIV/AIDS program environment
  • Apply basic M&E concepts to an HIV/AIDS program component
  • Explain the implications of broadened HIV/AIDS programs, particularly treatment scale up, for monitoring program impact
global summary of the hiv aids epidemic december 2004
Global Summary of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic December 2004

Number of people living with HIV/AIDS Total 39.4 million (35.9 - 44.3 million) Adults 37.2 million (33.8 - 41.7 million) Children under 15 years 2.2 million (2.0 - 2.6 million)

People newly infected with HIV in 2003 Total 4.9 million (4.3 - 6.4 million) Adults 4.3 million (3.7 – 5.7 million) Children under 15 years 640 000 (570 000 – 750 000)

AIDS deaths in 2003 Total 3.1 million (2.8 – 3.5 million) Adults 2.6 million (2.3 – 2.9 million) Children under 15 years 510 000 (460,000 – 600,000)

global action to address the hiv aids epidemic
Global Action to Address the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

Word Bank multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP)

U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)

2000

2001

2003

2004

World Health Organization's call to provide treatment to 3 million people by 2005 (WHO 3x5)

(Announced December 1, 2003)

United Nations General Assembly Special Session on AIDS (UNGASS)

Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis

goals global
GOALS: Global
  • Millennium Development Goal6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

  • WHO 3 by 5 Goal: Universal access to antiretroviral therapy for all living with HIV/AIDS

Target: Treating 3 million people by 2005

goals us presidents emergency plan
Goals: US Presidents Emergency Plan
  • Prevention of 7 million new infections
  • Treat 2 million HIV-infected people
  • Care for 10 million HIV-infected individuals and AIDS orphans
what are the goals of hiv aids programs
What Are the Goals of HIV/AIDS Programs?
  • Prevent new HIV infections
  • Extend and improve life for those already infected with HIV
  • Mitigate the social and economic impacts of the epidemic
key hiv aids program areas
Key HIV/AIDS Program Areas

Prevention

  • Behavior Change and Communication
    • e.g. sexual behavior, condom use, injecting drug use (IDU) behaviors
  • Medical Interventions
    • e.g. PMTCT, VCT, blood safety, universal precautions, STI treatment etc.

Care and Treatment

  • Care and support to PLWHA and their families
  • Prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections (including tuberculosis)
  • Treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART)

Impact Mitigation

  • Support to Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC)
  • Reduction of stigma and discrimination
  • Addressing gender disparities
m e implications1
M&E Implications
  • High emphasis on accountability
    • Mandatory’ reporting on international indicators (MDG and UNGASS)
    • Donor-reporting requirements linked to large influx of money
  • Drive toward standardization
the three ones principles for the coordination of national aids responses
The Three Ones: Principles for the coordination of national AIDS responses
  • One agreed-upon HIV/AIDS Action Framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners.
  • One national AIDS authority, with a broad-based multi-sectoral mandate.
  • One agreed-upon country-level monitoring and evaluation system

Source: UNAIDS. 2004. Commitment to principles for concerted AIDS action at country level

m e challenges
M&E Challenges
  • Complex multi-sectoral M&E plans
  • Wide range of information needed
  • Different approaches needed in concentrated versus generalized epidemics
  • Each HIV/AIDS program component has specific M&E needs and challenges
m e challenges i
M&E Challenges I

ALL COMPONENTS

  • Rapid scale-up of new/routine systems
  • Denominators – identifying eligible people
  • Double counting in service statistics
m e challenges i1
M&E Challenges I

PREVENTION

  • Quality of reporting of sensitive behaviors
  • Identifying size of most-at-risk population

VCT & PMTCT

  • Measuring impact
  • Quality of services
  • Service cascade
m e challenges ii
M&E Challenges II

CARE AND SUPPORT

  • Little M&E experience
  • Often community-based
  • Minimum care standards
  • Integration with TB-tracking referrals

ARV

  • Patient-level tracking systems
  • Adherence
m e challenges iii
M&E Challenges III

OVC

  • Little M&E experience
  • Often community-based
  • Minimum package of services
  • Psychosocial support measurement
  • Ethical & methodological issues in data collection

STIGMA & DISCRIMINATION

  • Definitions
  • Measurement tools – validity in different contexts
  • Selection bias – only disclosed PLWHA observed
general m e principles
General M&E Principles
  • Determine how data are to be used
  • Prepare M&E Plan
    • M&E Framework
    • Indicators
    • Data sources and data-collection schedule
    • Evaluation-design / targeted-evaluations needs
    • Data reporting and utilization plan
  • Implement M&E Plan
  • Use data for program decision-making and reporting
information for decision making
Information for Decision Making
  • Global Level: Are we achieving global goals?
  • National Level: What should be the national policy on PMTCT?
  • Program Level: Are we distributing services to meet the need?
  • Facility Level: Are we providing enough services to meet the need?
  • Provider Level: What is quality of a care for this patient?
  • Community Level: What are we doing as a community to meet the need?
  • Individual Level: Where should I get treatment?
frameworks for hiv aids programs
Frameworks for HIV/AIDS Programs
  • Different types of frameworks can be used (e.g. Results framework, log frame)
  • Different, inter-related frameworks for different program areas (e.g. VCT, PMTCT, care and support) likely to be needed for a comprehensive program.
  • Output of one program activity may be the input to another
  • HIV/AIDS frameworks based on relevant documents such as a national AIDS strategy.
hiv aids indicators
HIV/AIDS Indicators

Program-level, National- and Global-level Indicators (Guides/Sources)

First-generation

  • 2000: General HIV/AIDS programs

Second-generation

  • 2004: HIV/AIDS Care and Support
  • 2004: Prevention of HIV in infants and young children (PMTCT)
  • 2004: HIV/AIDS programmes for young people
  • 2005 update: UNGASS (Millennium Development Goals)
  • 2005: ARV
  • 2000-2005: All UNAIDS and partner HIV/AIDS guides
  • To be released: OVC program guide (FHI), Concentrated Epidemics M&E Guide, and revised GFATM Toolkit (2005/06)
information sources for hiv aids m e
Information sources for HIV/AIDS M&E
  • Document review and key informant interviews
    • National Composite Policy Index
    • AIDS Program Effort Index
  • Routine program information
    • Annual condom sales
    • Providers trained in VCT etc.
  • Routine health information systems
    • No. client visits for VCT etc.
    • ARV drugs distributed etc.
  • Medical records/patient tracking systems
    • ART adherence
    • No. patients on ART
  • PLACE (Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts)
    • Identification and characteristics of sites where risk behaviors take place
    • Sexual partnership formation at sites
information sources for hiv aids m e1
Information sources for HIV/AIDS M&E
  • Facility surveys
    • Coverage of HIV/AIDS services (facility-based)
    • Readiness to provide quality HIV/AIDS services
    • Appropriate STI management
  • General Population surveys
    • Sexual behavior
    • HIV seroprevalence
  • Targeted Population Surveys/Behavioral Surveillance Surveys
    • Sexual and other risk behaviors
    • HIV seroprevalence
  • Surveillance
    • HIV seroprevalence
  • Vital Registration
    • AIDS mortality
information storage cris
Information Storage: CRIS

Country Response Information System

  • Purpose:

To enable the systematic

    • storage
    • analysis
    • retrieval
    • dissemination

of collected information on a country’s response to HIV/AIDS

  • Structure:Integrated system with 3 modules
    • Indicator
    • Project / resource tracking
    • Research Inventory
illustrative questions for vct programs
Illustrative Questions for VCT programs
  • Are VCT services being provided as planned?
  • Do services meet minimum quality standards?
  • Is utilization of services increasing?
  • Are there reductions in riskier behavior (among those seeking services)?
  • Are there increases in use of care, support, and treatment services (among those seeking services)?
illustrative process and output indicators
Illustrative Process and Output Indicators
  • Number of people trained in providing VCT according to national and international standards
  • Number of people who receive counseling (by sex)
  • Number of people who receive testing (by sex)
  • Number of clients who test positive for HIV
  • Number of HIV+ clients referred to treatment, care, and support services
percentage of facilities providing vct services
Percentage of Facilities Providing VCT Services

Source: 2002 Ghana HIV Service Provision Assessment and 2002 Uganda HIV Service Provision Assessment

percentage of vct sites with selected inputs for quality counseling
Percentage of VCT Sites With Selected Inputs for Quality Counseling

Percent

Source: 2002 Ghana HIV Service Provision Assessment

percentage of vct sites with selected inputs for quality counseling1
Percentage of VCT Sites With Selected Inputs for Quality Counseling

Percent

Source: 2002 Uganda HIV Service Provision Assessment

illustrative outcome indicators
Illustrative Outcome Indicators
  • Percentage of people in the community who know about the VCT services
  • Proportion of people counseled and tested who report positive behavior change to avoid HIV infection/transmission
  • Proportion of people tested and found to be HIV+ who report positive or negative reactions from others
hiv testing among women in zambia
HIV testing among women in Zambia

Source: 2001 Zambia DHS

multi centre study design of the vct efficacy study
Multi-centre study Design of the VCT Efficacy Study
  • Multi-center randomized trial: 1995-1997
  • Three sites: Kenya (N=1515), Tanzania (N= 1427) & Trinidad (N=1357)
  • Randomized to receive VCT (N=2152) or Health Information (N=2141)
  • Traced and interviewed at 6 & 12 months
  • Cross-over at 6 months so that the original Health Information group now had access to VCT
slide39

40

30

20

10

0

HI

VCT

HI

VCT

Males

Males

Females

Females

Baseline

6 Months

12 Months

Multi-centre study Unprotected intercourse with non-primary partners decreased significantly more among VCT participants

percent

slide40

Multi-centre study: Unprotected intercourse with commercial sexual partners decreased significantly more among VCT participants

14

12

10

8

Baseline

6 months

6

4

2

0

HI

males

VCT

males

HI

VCT

Overall

HI

Overall

females

females

VCT

incidence vs prevalence
Incidence vs. Prevalence
  • Incidence =

number of new infections in a time period

susceptible population (HIV negative) in the time period

  • Prevalence =

number of infected people at a given point in time

total population (HIV negative & HIV positive) at that point in time

prevalence the faucet and sink
Prevalence, the faucet and sink…

New HIV Infections

Number of HIV infected people

Deaths

impacts indicators
Impacts Indicators
  • Prevent new HIV infections
    • Percentage of young people aged 15-24 who are HIV-infected (UNGASS and Millennium Development Goal)
    • Percentage of HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers (UNGASS)
  • Extend and improve life for those already infected with HIV
    • AIDS incidence and prevalence
    • Quality of life measures
    • Case fatality rate for HIV/AIDS
    • Proportion of mortality attributed to AIDS
    • General population life expectancy
  • Mitigate the social and economic impacts of the epidemic
    • Gross national product or other economic indicators
    • Infant and child mortality rates
impacts hiv sero prevalence among 20 24 year old antenatal women in uganda 1990 2001
Impacts: HIV sero-prevalence among 20-24 year old antenatal women in Uganda: 1990-2001

Source: STD/AIDS Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Uganda 2002

slide46
Impacts: HIV prevalence estimates based on ANC sentinel-site surveillance vs. estimates based on population surveys

Sources: Boerma, et. al. 2003; Central Bureau of Statistics 2004; Republic of Kenya 2001

savvy sample vital registration with verbal autopsy
SAVVY - Sample Vital Registration with Verbal Autopsy
  • A package:
    • “Sample vital registration” conducted in surveillance communities
    • “Verbal autopsy” conducted as an interview with the family of the deceased to ascertain the likely cause of death
  • Purpose is
    • to provide measurement of vital events when alternative sources (vital registration) are not available or not complete
    • To provide information on the cause of death when death certificates may not be accurate
  • May be used to monitor AIDS related deaths, use of health services, etc.