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Dementia. Nurul Ashikin Hamzah | Nurul Eylia Nasaruddin. Introduction. Dementia is a non-specific illness syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. Dementia Worldwide. Type of Dementia.

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dementia

Dementia

NurulAshikinHamzah |NurulEyliaNasaruddin

introduction
Introduction
  • Dementia is a non-specific illness syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving
type of dementia
Type of Dementia
  • Cortical dementias :
  • Dementia where the brain damage primarily affects the brain's cortex, or outer layer.
  • Cause problems with memory, language, thinking, and social behavior
      • Alzheimer's disease.
      • Frontotemporal dementias
      • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
slide5

2. Subcortical dementias

  • Affects parts of the brain below the cortex.
  • Changes in emotions and movement in addition to problems with memory.
      • Huntington's disease
      • Parkinson's disease
      • Focal thalamic and basal ganglia lesions
      • Multiple sclerosis.
      • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
slide6

3. Mixed dementias

  • Other than previous dementia.
  • Occurs as a result of a physical disease or injury.
      • Vascular dementia
      • Dementia with lewy bodies
      • Corticobasal degeneration
      • Neurosyphilis
aetieology causes
Aetieology [causes]

Main causes of dementia

  • Alzheimer's disease (50-60 per cent of cases)
  • Vascular dementia (20-25 per cent)
  • Dementia with lewy bodies (15-20 per cent)
slide8

Other less common causes are as follows:

  • Parenchymal/degenerative
        • Pick's disease
        • Parkinson disease
        • Huntington's disease
        • Wilson’s disease
        • MS
  • Intracranial causes
        • CVA
        • Tumor
        • Head trauma
        • Subdural hematoma
        • NPH
slide9

Infection

        • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (Prion disease)
        • Neurosyphils
        • HIV associated dementia
        • Others
  • Vitamin deficiency
        • B 12
        • Folate
        • Niacin
        • Thiamine
slide10

Metabolic causes:-

        • Uremia
        • Hepatic encephalopathy
        • Hypoglycemia
        • Calcium, Mg, electrolyte imbalance
  • Endocrine
        • Hypothyroidism
        • Hyperparathyroidism
        • Cushing’s and Addison’s disease
  • Toxins
        • Prolonged alcohol misuse
        • Heavy metal poising
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Memory loss
  • Disorientation of time and place
  • Problem in communicating/language
  • Abstract thinking  
  • Poor or reduced judgment
slide12

Dificulties in performing basic tasks

  • Mood or behavioral changes
  • Misplacing articles
  • Loss of initiative
  • Change in personality - passive
treatment and prevention
Treatment and Prevention
  • Regular physical exam
  • Regular Exercise
  • Have fun and relax
  • Keep your cholesterol in the normal range. Total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dL.
  • Learn and monitor for signs, symptoms, and behavioral triggers of dementia.
slide14

Treat or prevent high blood pressure.

  • Do not smoke.
  • Stay at a healthy weight. This also reduces your risk of diabetes, another risk factor for dementia
  • Memory exercises – crossword, brainteasers
  • Daily walks
  • Balanced diet - 5 small meals a day
    • Omega-3 fats
    • Antioxidants
    • Whole grains
  • Relaxation exercises
references
References
  • WHO
  • http://www.omnimedicalsearch.com/conditions-diseases/dementia-introduction.html
  • http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/dementia-000046.htm