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Curriculum Differentiation:. PROCESS. The Maker Model. CONTENT. PRODUCT. ENVIRONMENT. Pupil Free Day Presentation Monday 19 April, 2004.

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curriculum differentiation

Curriculum Differentiation:

PROCESS

The Maker Model

CONTENT

PRODUCT

ENVIRONMENT

Pupil Free Day Presentation

Monday 19 April, 2004

slide2
Individual differences have intrigued and challenged educators for centuries. On the one hand, the understanding and application of this concept motivates our profession. On the other hand, practical responses to individual differences have almost entirely eluded us.

Pat Burke Guild and Stephen Garger, Marching to Different Drummers (ASCD, 1998, p. 2)

workshop outline
Workshop Outline
  • What is a differentiated curriculum? (Denise- 5 minutes)
  • The Maker Model of differentiation- group activity exploring:
    • Content
    • Process
    • Product
    • Learning environment (25 minutes)
  • Small group presentation on aspects of differentiation (20 minutes)
  • Differentiation in Unit Planning (Dianne- 10 minutes)
what is a differentiated curriculum
What is a differentiated curriculum?
  • Differentiated Curriculum refers to teaching that is adapted to take into account the individual differences and needs of students in any one classroom.
  • It comprises modifications to the curriculum, teaching structures, and teaching practices in combination to ensure that instruction is relevant, flexible and responsive, leading to successful achievement and the development of students as self-regulated learners.

(van Kraayenoord, 1997)

differentiated curriculum
Differentiated Curriculum
  • Also known as:
    • Differentiated Instruction
    • Multilevel instruction
  • Requires teachers to:
    • Identify learning outcomes
    • Pretest students for prior mastery
    • Eliminate unnecessary teaching
differentiation occurs by
Differentiation occurs by:
  • Planning for different outcomes from the same task
  • Modifying learning tasks
  • Giving some students more support and direction
  • Using different forms of grouping in the classroom
  • Using different resources

Westwood (1996) citing Dewhurst (1996)

the maker model
The Maker Model
  • June Maker
  • 1982
  • Differentiation requires modification of four primary areas of curriculum development:
    • Content
    • Process
    • Product
    • Learning environment
so why are we here today
So why are we here today?
  • You are already doing this is your classroom to varying degrees
  • This workshop activity is about exploring what theorists have to say and sharing what you already know
  • Everyone’s contributions are valuable
  • Take the time to get the most out of the professional sharing of practical strategies and ideas
  • Our collective experience and knowledge is AWESOME!
  • Have FUN!
now it s your turn
Now it’s your turn!
  • Form your groups- 8 groups (content 1 & 2, process 1 & 2, product 1 & 2, learning environment 1 & 2)
  • Read packs of info focusing on your topic (5 minutes)
  • Use materials provided- cardboard, paper, pens etc to design posters containing information on your topic
    • What is _________? (Definition and examples from readings)
    • How do we differentiate _________ in the classroom? Give many practical examples for all levels of school. (20 minutes)
  • Present to the group (5 minutes each combined group)
  • Posters displayed in staffroom for term 2.
content
Content
  • Content of curriculum comprises:
    • Ideas
    • Concepts
    • Information presented to students
  • Content can be made:
    • More complex
    • More varied
    • Organised differently
differentiating content
Differentiating Content
  • Important that gifted students have an understanding of “the basics”
  • Pretesting helps establish this
  • Need to be taught at a faster pace with less repetition and possibly from a different starting point.
  • Content goals should include outcomes adapted or changed to suit the established knowledge base of the student/s
process
Process
  • Process is the way in which the content is presented to students:
    • Questions
    • Learning activities
  • Process can be differentiated by:
    • Modifying the level of thinking (ie. Bloom’s)
    • Changing the pace
    • Changing the approach
differentiating process
Differentiating Process
  • Processing skills help students manipulate knowledge in meaningful ways
  • Research has shown that gifted students benefit significantly from higher order thinking training
  • Careful preparation of questions is essential
  • Adopt a thinking model eg, deBono’s Six Hats, and use repeatedly to allow students to internalise it
product
Product
  • Product is:
    • What the students produce
    • NOT a summation of content
  • Should involve:
    • Higher-level reasoning skills
      • Analysing
      • Evaluating
      • Creating
differentiating product
Differentiating Product
  • Gifted students require high but specific expectations and depth with product:
    • Real world problems and products
    • Variety of production requirements and alternatives
    • Open-ended product alternatives that encourage creative responses
    • A reason for sharing their findings
    • A real audience
    • Realistic corrective feedback
learning environment
Learning Environment
  • Changes should also be made to the learning environment if successful modifications are to be made to the content, process and product of curriculum.
  • Group able children together part of the time so they have the freedom to work at their own level (without modification).
  • Students should be given independent projects- inside and outside classroom.
  • They should be provided with a structured learning environment with open-ended tasks.
  • Research shows that ability grouping for specific instruction is effective for all students including gifted students but only if the curriculum has been differentiated.
it should be challenging
It should be challenging!
  • Children should be introduced to materials and activities which would be beyond the capabilities of their age-peers of average ability.
  • Teachers should ask:
    • Would all students want to be involved in such learning experiences?
    • Could all students participate in such learning experiences?
why differentiate
Why Differentiate?
  • All students should be given an opportunity to develop to their full potential.
  • For most students the regular classroom will provide appropriate challenge.
  • For gifted learners special provision must be made in the regular classroom if they are to have the same exciting and challenging learning experiences as their classmates.
  • Gifted students need the opportunity to work through the curriculum at a faster pace and need less time on basics and revision.
online resources
Online resources
  • Differentiating Instruction www.ascd.org/pdi/demo/diffinstr/differentiated1.html (accessed 1 April 2004)
  • Elements Integrated into Curricula http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/metks4/curricul/k-s4curr/elements.html (accessed 1 April 2004)
  • Partners in Enrichment: Preparing teachers for multiple classrooms www.cec.sped.org/bk/martec.html (accessed 1 April 2004)
  • Selected ERIC Abstracts on Differentiated Instructionhttp://www.ascd.org/educationnews/eric/differinstructionabs.html (accessed 1 April 2004)