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Chapter 1 Introductions of WSNs

Chapter 1 Introductions of WSNs

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Chapter 1 Introductions of WSNs

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  1. Chapter 1Introductions of WSNs

  2. Outline • 1.1. Architecture of WSNs • 1.2. Applications of WSNs • 1.3. Internet of Things • 1.4. Issues and Challenges

  3. Architecture of WSNs

  4. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) • Sensor Network is composed of a few sink nodes and a huge number of sensor nodes • Sink node: • A control center where user can retrieve data gathered from sensor networks • Static/Mobile

  5. Wireless Sensor Networks • Sensor node: • Sensing unit • Processing unit • Transceiver unit • Power unit • Additional units GPS Motor Processing unit Sensing unit Sensor ADC Processor Transceiver unit Memory Power unit Power generator

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks User Event A B C Sinknode Sensornode Monitored Area

  7. Mobile Sensor Sensor Board Ultra Sonic Motor Source:http://www.ri.cmu.edu/research_project_detail.html?type=description&project_id=104&menu_id=261 Source:http://blog.xbow.com/xblog/images/2007/06/27/imousemobilesensor.jpg

  8. Mobile Sensor Battery Brushless motors Data recorder Arm LED GPS 500g payload Packed with sensors(3MEMS gyros, 3 MEMS accelerometers, 3 magnetometers, GPS, and 1 barometric pressure sensor) Rotor blades Rotor blades Brushless motors LED 10 on-board sensors: 3 accelerometers, 3 gyroscopes,3 magnetometers, and 1 barometric pressure sensor Battery Landing gear 250g payload Source:http://slashcool.com/stuff/gadgets/draganflyer-x6-uav.html Source:http://gizmodo.com/5334419/draganfly-x4-uav-tiny-camera+packing-ufo+looking-copter-is-cheaper-than-ever

  9. Real Products of Sensor Nodes

  10. Sensor Node Hardware Platforms • Accsense, Inc. • Ambient Systems mesh networks (Netherlands) • Atlas (Pervasa/University of Florida) • BEAN Project • BTnode (ETH Zurich) • COTS Dust (Dust Networks) • EYES Project • Fleck (CSIRO Australia) • Glacsweb • Hoarder Board • Kmote (TinyOS Mall) • Mica Mote (Crossbow) • MicroStrain, Inc. • Newtrax Technologies, Inc. • Particles (Particle Computer) • Particles (TecO) • PicoCrickets (Montreal, Canada) • ScatterWeb ESB nodes • SensiNet Smart Sensors (Sensicast Systems) • Sensor Webs (SensorWare Systems) • Smart Dust (Dust Networks) • TIP Mote (Maxfor) • Tmote (Moteiv) • WINS (Rockwell) • WINS (UCLA) • WSN430 (INSA de Lyon/INRIA) • Octopus II, Octopus X, Octopus N (NTHU/Taiwan)

  11. Sensor Node Software Platforms • SensorWare • SINA • SOS • TinyDB • TinyGALS • TinyOS • t-Kernel • VIP Bridge • AutoSec • Bertha • BTnut Nut/OS • COMiS • Contiki • CORMOS • COUGAR • DSWare • eCos • Enviro-Track • EYESOS • Global Sensor Networks;GSN • Impala • jWebDust • LiteOS • MagnetOS • MANTIS • MiLAN • Netwiser • OCTAVEX • SenOS Programming languages • c@t (Computation at a point in space (@) Time ) • DCL (Distributed Compositional Language) • galsC • nesC • Protothreads • SNACK • SQTL

  12. Static Sensors • MICA2 • The first commercial product • Applications • Wireless Sensor Networks • Security, Surveillance andForce Protection • Environmental Monitoring • Large Scale Wireless Networks(1000+ nodes) • Distributed Computing Platform Source:http://www.xbow.com/Products/productdetails.aspx?sid=72

  13. Static Sensors • MICA2DOT • Applications • Wireless Sensor Networks • Temperature and Environmental Monitoring • Remote Data Logging • Smart Badges, WearableComputing Source:http://www.xbow.com/Products/productdetails.aspx?sid=73

  14. Static Sensors • MICAz(Zigbee) • Applications • Indoor Building Monitoring andSecurity • Acoustic, Video, Vibration andOther High Speed Sensor Data • Large Scale Sensor Networks(1000+ Points) Source:http://www.xbow.com/Products/productdetails.aspx?sid=164

  15. Static Sensors • TELOSB • Applications • Platform for low power research development • Wireless sensor network experimentation Source:http://www.xbow.com/Products/productdetails.aspx?sid=252

  16. NTHU Sensor Platform • Octopus II Features • One light sensors • One temperature-humidity sensor • Sensor board • Humidity & Temperature sensor • Light sensors • Gyroscope • Three axis accelerometer

  17. NTHU Sensor Platform • Octopus X Features • MCU (CC2431) • SMA type antenna • RF range ~ 100m

  18. Sensor elements Temperature/Humidity Sensor Ultrasonic Sensor GPS Receiver Module Tri-Axis Accelerometer Module Color Sensor PIR Sensor Source:http://www.parallax.com/Store/Sensors/tabid/86/Default.aspx

  19. Sensor elements Gyroscope Module Pressure Sensor Compass Module Hall-Effect Sensor Humidity Sensor Piezo Film Vibra Tab Mass QTI Sensor Sound Impact Sensor Source:http://www.parallax.com/Store/Sensors/tabid/86/Default.aspx

  20. Applications of WSNs

  21. Applications of WSNs • Entertainment Applications (遊戲應用) • Security Applications (安全監控) • Environment and Ecology (環境應用) • Health Care (健康照護) • Smart Home (智慧屋) • Agricultural Applications (農業應用) • Industrial Applications (工業應用) • Military Applications (軍事應用) • Art Applications (藝術應用)

  22. Entertainment Applications • Wii (Nintendo - Game Player) • One main feature of the Wii Remote is its motion sensing capability, which allows the user to interact with and manipulate items on screen via gesture recognition. • Motion Sensor (OrientationSensor + G-Sensor ) and Infrared Sensor Source: http://www.nintendo.tw/

  23. Entertainment Applications • Wii Vitality Sensor • The device will sense the user's pulse and a number of other signals transmitted by Human’s bodies. Source: http://www.nintendo.tw/

  24. Security Applications • Disaster Relief and Guiding System • Constructs the escape system with the Wireless Sensor Networks • Detects the high temperature area. • Guide to the evacuation exit. • Report to firemen. • Temperature Sensors EMG Source: Project Director :NCTU Department of Computer Science (Dr.Tseng,Yu-Chee)

  25. Security Applications (b) Show the direction (d) Change the direction dynamically (a) Sensor Node and Model Source: Project Director :NCTU Department of Computer Science (Dr.Tseng,Yu-Chee)

  26. Security Applications • Volcanic eruption • Effective early warning systems • Using Seismic Sensors to detect seismic event when eruption occurs. Source: http://www.snm.ethz.ch/Projects/SensorNetworkExperimentalData

  27. Security Applications

  28. Environment and Ecology • Underwater Sensor Network • To detect shoal, marine life, etc. • Sonar Sensor Source: http://www.simrad.com/www/01/NOKBG0240.nsf/AllWeb/4596DFE234A68ECEC12573C50042F585?OpenDocument

  29. Environment and Ecology Debris Flow Monitoring of Wireless Sensor Network System Humidity Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Pressure Sensor, Optical Sensor Source: Project- 「Debris Flow Monitoring of Wireless Sensor Network」(National Tsing Hua University, Dr. Pai H. Chou)

  30. Environment and Ecology • The GlacsWeb Architecture • Using the sensor to detect the movement of the glacier, then the sensor sending a message to the system to monitor the glacier. • Pressure Sensor, Temperature Sensors and OrientationSensor Sensor node Base Station Sensor node Source: K. Martinez, R. Ong, J. Hart, Glacsweb: a sensor network for hostile environments IEEE SECON’04

  31. Environment and Ecology Habitat Monitoring on Great Duck Island Wireless sensor networks monitor the microclimates in and around nesting burrow used by the Leach’s Storm Petrel Temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, mid-range infrared, and image Source: http://www.greatduckisland.net/ (Intel Research Laboratory at Berkeley)

  32. Health Care WHMS - Wearable Health Monitoring Systems Source: http://www.ece.uah.edu/~jovanov/whrms/

  33. Health Care • Health Hero Network • Sensor network technology has been under development for years and has matured to a great degree in the last few. • Imagine a system where every person in the world had a chip that could monitor their vital signs (heartbearts, body temperature etc) and then relay these to a central tracking facility such as a hospital or doctors office). Source: http://www.jasonernst.com/

  34. Smart Home Aegis - Smart Home Sensor Model : Octopus II with OrientationSensor, G-Sensor,Infrared Sensor and Gas Sensor Source: Project Director :NCTU Department of Computer Science and Information Engineer Dr.Sheng-Tzong Cheng

  35. The Oriental Fruit fly Ecological Monitoring and Early Warning System Sensor Model : Octopus II with Humidity Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Pressure Sensor and Optical Sensor Agricultural Applications OctopusII Source: National Taiwan University  Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering Dr. Joe-Air Jiang

  36. Agricultural Applications Application of WSN technology in the Oriental fruit fly ecological monitoring Source: National Taiwan University  Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering Dr. Joe-Air Jiang

  37. Agricultural Applications • The wine making • The ice-wine which must be an exact temperature for a certain amount of time before it is harvested in order to qualify • To find out that the temperature is actually not quite cold enough yet. So all the workers are sent home and paid for three hours of work. If wireless sensors were used instead perhaps some money and time could be saved. • Humidity Sensor, Temperature Sensor Source: http://www.jasonernst.com/

  38. Greenhouses Wireless sensor networks are also used to control the temperature and humidity levels inside commercial greenhouses Temperature sensor, humidity sensor Agricultural Applications Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network

  39. Industrial Applications • LCD plants • To prevent shaking of the glass substrate during processing • Improve the productivity (increase 5%) • Seismic Sensors、Displacement Sensors Source: http://www.arrl.org, www.sounderpro.com.tw/Digital

  40. Industrial Applications • Smart Parking in San Fransico, CA • Drivers will be alerted to empty parking places either by displays on street signs, or by looking at maps on screens of their smart phones. • They may even be able to pay for parking by cell phone, and add to the parking meter from their phones without returning to the car. Source: http://gizmodo.com/5024678/san-francisco-set-to-deploy-smart-parking-sfpark-wi+fi-system

  41. Military Applications • Mobile Sensor in the military • The robotic weapons now playing greater roles on the battlefield. Source: http://paulmcleary.typepad.com/paul_mcleary/2009/07/technology-push-thats-really-waiting-for-a-requirements-pull.html

  42. Military Applications • Unattended ground sensor network for area force protection. Source: http://www.tridsys.com/white-unattended-ground-sensors.htm

  43. Art Applications - Interactive Art & Humanity • A Sidewalk of Sound Trees 1.The weather. 2.Interact with the viewer. Humidity Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Optical Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor, Anemometer Sensor… Sensor Source: Project-「Wireless Sensor Network in Interactive Art & Humanity (1),(2)」 (Taipei National University of the Arts and Tamkang University )

  44. Art Applications - Interactive Art & Humanity • WSN in Interactive Wall • Deploy the sensor in the wall to sense the data and show the image or text at the wall(LEDs). • Humidity Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Optical Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor Sensor Source: Project-「Wireless Sensor Network in Interactive Art & Humanity (1),(2)」 (Taipei National University of the Arts and Tamkang University )

  45. Art Applications - Interactive Art & Humanity ‧Art Design - Sound Trees ‧Art Design - Interactive Wall Source: Project-「Wireless Sensor Network in Interactive Art & Humanity (1),(2)」 (Taipei National University of the Arts and Tamkang University )

  46. Art Applications - Interactive Art & Humanity • MSOrgm (Motivational Sensitive Organism) • A personal robot designed to interact with the viewer • Camera and Infrared Sensor Source: http://www.ntust.edu.tw , http://joelkatz1.wordpress.com

  47. Art Applications - Interactive Art & Humanity • The Future Museum -Step Around Archival Taiwan • Using the Diamond Touch Floor to sense the user's location and pressure • Interactively control of the music and photo display. Source: Project Director : Taipei National University of the Arts (Dr. Su-Chu Hsu)

  48. Internet of Things

  49. 物聯網的定義 • 物聯網 (Internet of Things, IoT) • 物物相聯的網際網路 • 在特定物體上植入各種微型感測晶片 • 貼上或嵌入無線射頻辨識(RFID) • 感測器(Sensors) • 無線通訊晶片 加速度計 傾斜感測 特殊氣體 感測器 溫濕度 感測器 藍芽/Zigbee/RF 無線通訊模組 RFID 條碼辨識系統

  50. 物聯網的定義 • 使物体更具溝通能力 • 實現人與物的 “對話” • 實現人與人的 “對話” • 實現物與物的 “交流” • 物聯網中的物體更具智慧 • 自動回報狀態 • 自動與物溝通 • 自動與人溝通 • 更易與人互動 • 更聰明地被人類使用