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D1.HCC.CL2.20. SELECT, PREPARE AND SERVE SPECIAL CUISINES. Subject Elements. This unit comprises five Elements: Select dishes for special cuisines Identify and purchase foods Identify and use specific equipment for special cuisines Prepare, cook, and serve special cuisine

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D1 hcc cl2 20



Subject elements
Subject Elements

This unit comprises five Elements:

  • Select dishes for special cuisines

  • Identify and purchase foods

  • Identify and use specific equipment for special cuisines

  • Prepare, cook, and serve special cuisine

  • Store special cuisine products


Assessment for this unit may include:

  • Oral questions

  • Written questions

  • Work projects

  • Workplace observation of practical skills

  • Practical exercises

  • Formal report from supervisor

Element 1:

Select dishes for special cuisines

Select dishes for special cuisines
Select dishes for special cuisines

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Identify and select a range dishes for special cuisines

  • Select dishes taking into account cultural/cuisines or special customer requests

  • Ensure resources are available to prepare, cook and serve special cuisines

Identify special cuisine dishes
Identify special cuisine dishes

Identify and select a range dishes for special cuisines

Every country has its own unique dishes that is traditionally serves, either at a specific meal time or for a specific event.

  • What are special dishes in your country?

  • What are special dishes in your region?

  • What influences these dishes?


Importance of culture

  • The types of customers catered for by the hospitality industry are diverse.

  • Often the expectations customers have about foods, meals and even the style of food service is related to the cultural groups of which they belong.

World cuisines
World Cuisines

Slide 8

What makes a cuisine?

Cuisines are as varied as there are countries and communities within those countries.

Cuisine variations can influence the:

Foods that are preferred

Types of meals that are prepared

Style in which food is generally served

World cuisines1
World Cuisines

Slide 9

Each cuisine has its own characteristics, these are often based around:

  • Key Ingredients

  • Common cooking methods

    Being able to identify these will assist you in choosing appropriate meals.

World cuisines2
World Cuisines

Most hotels will provide a wide mix of food options to cater to the different preferences of its local and international customers.

  • What different cuisines do you know?

  • What are common food items in these cuisines?

Asean cuisine
ASEAN Cuisine


  • DagingMasakLadaHitam

  • UdangSambal Serai Bersantan

  • SerondengPandag

  • Nipah Palm Fruit 

  • RotiPrata

Asean cuisine1
ASEAN Cuisine


  • NasiLemak

  • Lontong

  • Mee Goreng

  • Nasi Goreng

  • Soto

Asean cuisine2
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Baisachchrouk

  • Fish amok

  • Khmer red curry

  • Lap Khmer

  • Nom banhchok

  • Kdamchaa

Asean cuisine3
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Red tree ants with beef and holy basil

  • Angdtray-meuk

  • Cha houyteuk

  • Cha Traop Dot

  • Cha KdaoSachMaon

  • Cambodian Manor Kho to Hu

Asean cuisine4
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Sticky rice

  • Tam makhoong

  • Miang

  • Look seen

  • Khua Pak Bong

  • Yor

  • Sommoo

Asean cuisine5
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Sompa

  • Lao sausage(saikok)

  • Seen hang

  • Larb

  • Pon

  • Tam makguh

  • Tam mak thou

  • Tam maktaeng

  • Tam kowphun

Asean cuisine6
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Tam kowphun

  • Kaengkalee

  • Sin dat or "Lao BBQ"

  • Mok pa

  • Mokgai

  • Titi gai

  • Nam khao

  • Khuakhao

Asean cuisine7
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Khaopiakkhao

  • Khaopiaksen

  • Khaopoon

  • Voon

  • Khaopard

  • Khaotom

  • Khaokhohp

  • Khanom maw kaeng

Asean cuisine8
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Sambal

  • Satay

  • Bakso

  • Soto

  • Nasi goreng

  • Gado-gado

Asean cuisine9
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Nasiuduk

  • Nasipadang

  • Ayam goreng

  • Bakmie goreng

  • Gudeg

  • Rawon

  • Pecellele

Asean cuisine10
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Oporayam

  • Gulai

  • Buburayam

  • Bakpao

  • Asinansayur

  • Cahkangkung

Asean cuisine11
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Rendangdaging or ayam

  • Apambalik

  • Nasikerabu

  • Ayampercik (chicken with percik sauce)

  • Kuih

  • Air tebu

Asean cuisine12
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Cendawangoreng

  • Serundingdaging or ayam

  • Lemang

  • Otak-otak

  • Tepungpelita

  • Rempeyek

Asean cuisine13
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Popiabasah

  • Bubur (porridges)

  • Rotijala

  • Murtabak

  • Laksa

Asean cuisine14
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Mohinga

  • Burmese Biryani

  • Kausuetho (khowsuey)

  • Hnyinhtoe

  • Burmese Naan Flat-bread and PeByouk

  • Rice and Burmese Curry

Asean cuisine15
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Beans, Onions, Pumpkin

  • Burmese Fish Curry

  • KhaosayThote

  • Deep Fried Stuffed Tofu

  • Sticky Rice With Shredded Coconut

Asean cuisine16
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Burmese Salads

    • LaphetThohk

    • Lemon Salad

    • GyinThohk

    • Tofu Thohk

    • Another Lemon Pulp Salad

    • Tomato and Cabbage Salad

Asean cuisine17
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Burmese Indian Thali Mixed Platter

  • Burmese Indian Dosa

  • Grilled Fish

  • Mala Hin

Asean cuisine18
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Adobo

  • Sinigang

  • Nilaga

  • Tinola

  • Pancit

  • Tapsilog

Asean cuisine19
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Pinakbet

  • Bicol Express

  • MonggoGuisado

  • Chop Suey

  • Sisig

  • Chicken Inasal

  • Pork Barbecue

Asean cuisine20
ASEAN Cuisine


  • LumpiaShanghai

  • Crispy Pata

  • LechonKawali

  • Kare-Kare

  • Caldereta

  • Kilawin

  • Lechon

Asean cuisine21
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Chicken Rice

  • Chilli Crab

  • MeeGoreng

  • BakKutTeh

  • BakChorMee

  • Prawn Mee

Asean cuisine22
ASEAN Cuisine


  • HokkienMee

  • Ice Kachang

  • Durian

  • Carrot Cake

  • RotiPrata

  • Sting Ray / BBQ "Zi Cha"

  • NasiLemak

Asean cuisine23
ASEAN Cuisine


  • KayaToast

  • Char KuayTeow

  • Yong Tau Fu

  • Otah

  • Curry Fish Head

  • Satay

Asean cuisine24
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Tom Yam Goong

  • Pad Thai

  • Kang Keaw Wan Gai

  • GaengDaeng

  • Tom Kha Kai

  • Tom Yam Gai

  • Moo Sa-Te

Asean cuisine25
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Som Tam

  • Yam Nua

  • Panaeng

  • PorPiaTord

  • Gai Pad Met Mamuang

  • Khao Pad

  • Pak Boong

Asean cuisine26
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Pho

  • Búnbò hue

  • Com tam

  • Canhchua

  • Banh hoi

  • Bo la lot

  • Banh Mi Thit

Asean cuisine27
ASEAN Cuisine


  • Vietnamese salad rolls

  • Spring rolls

  • BanhCuon

  • Banhbao

  • Banhchung

  • Bun MangVit

  • Bun cha

Cuisine in different countries
Cuisine in different countries

Chinese cuisine

  • Kung Pao Chicken

  • Spring Rolls/Egg Rolls

  • Szechuan Hotpot

  • Szechuan Chicken

  • Mushu Pork

  • Fried Rice

  • Beef with Broccoli

  • Fried Dumplings

Cuisine in different countries1
Cuisine in different countries

Chinese cuisine

  • Chinese dumpling - jiaozi

  • Hot and Sour Soup

  • Dim Sum

  • Beef Fried Noodles

  • Hunan fried tofu

  • Chow Mein

  • Wontons

  • Peking Duck

Cuisine in different countries2
Cuisine in different countries

Indian cuisine

  • Biryani

  • Butter Chicken

  • Vindaloo & Rogan Josh

  • Tandoori Chicken

  • Palakpaneer

  • Chole-Bhature

  • Dalmakhani

  • MalaiKofta

  • Naan

Cuisine in different countries3
Cuisine in different countries

Indian cuisine

  • Samosa and Pakodas

  • Pav Bhaji

  • Panipuri - Chaats

  • Kebabs

  • Aloogobi

  • Lassi – Shakes

  • Pickles

Cuisine in different countries4
Cuisine in different countries

Japanese cuisine

  • Sashimi - thin slices of raw fish

  • Sushi - raw fish, served on vinegared rice

  • Sushi roll - filling is rolled in rice with a covering of nori.

  • Tempura - seafood or vegetables dipped in batter and deep-fried

  • KareRaisu - curry rice

  • Soba, udon and ramen noodles

Cuisine in different countries5
Cuisine in different countries

Japanese cuisine

  • Teppanyaki - Meat, seafood and vegetables prepared in front of guests

  • Donburi - bowl of rice covered with one of a variety of toppings

  • Sukiyaki - savoury stew of vegetables and beef

  • Shabushabu – thin slices of beef dipped in a pot of boiling water and stock

  • Okonomiyaki - savory Japanese pancake

  • Yakitori - broiled chicken

  • Yakiniku - grilled meat

Cuisine in different countries6
Cuisine in different countries

French cuisine

  • Soupe à l'oignon - French soup made of onions and beef stock

  • Cheeses – Brie, Camembert, Roquefort

  • Baguette - A long skinny loaf of French bread

  • Boeuf bourguignon - traditional French stew

  • Coq au Vin - A famous food that is simply chicken

  • Flamiche - pie crust filled with cheese and vegetables

  • Salade nicoise

Cuisine in different countries7
Cuisine in different countries

French cuisine

  • Duck confit

  • Foie Gras - This is the very fatty liver of a goose or duck

  • Escargots – snails

  • Truffes – Expensive black mushrooms

  • Ratatouille

  • Crepes – thin pancakes

  • Desserts – flans, ganache, tarts, pastries, crossaints

Cuisine in different countries8
Cuisine in different countries

Italian cuisine

  • Pizza – cooked dough base with various toppings

  • Chicken parmigiana

  • Gelato – Italian ice-cream

  • Tiramisu – dessert made of biscuits soaked in coffee with layers of whipped mascarpone and egg yolks

  • Risotto – short grain rice dish

Cuisine in different countries9
Cuisine in different countries

Italian cuisine

  • Mortadella – heat cured sausage

  • Spumoni - molded Italian ice cream dessert

  • Cheeses – Mozzarella, Parmigiano-Reggiano

  • Pasta – Cannoli, spaghetti, penne, Fettuccine, Linguine

  • Lasagna

  • Saltimbocca

Cuisine in different countries10
Cuisine in different countries

German cuisine

  • Bratwurst -sausage made of mixed meats

  • Frankfurter - smoked sausage made from pure pork

  • Sauerkraut - Fermented shredded cabbage

  • Spätzle - hand-made noodles

  • Knödel - German dumplings

  • Kartoffelsalat - Potato salad

Cuisine in different countries11
Cuisine in different countries

German cuisine

  • Schweinshaxe - Pork hock

  • Eisbein - Ham hock usually served with Sauerkraut

  • Weihnachtsgans roasted goose

  • Wiener schnitzel

  • Strudel

  • Stollen - A bread-like cake

  • Apfelkuchen - Apple Cake

Cuisine in different countries12
Cuisine in different countries

Greek cuisine

  • Baklavas - Baklava Pastry

  • HortaVrasta - Boiled Leafy Greens

  • Tyropitakia - Cheese Pie Triangles

  • KotosoupaAvgolemono - Chicken & Lemon Rice Soup

  • Revithosoupa - Chickpea Soup

Cuisine in different countries13
Cuisine in different countries

Greek cuisine

  • Classic Dips & Spreads - Melitzanosalata, Skorthalia, Taramosalata, Tzatziki

  • Pastitsio or Pasticcio - Creamy Cheesy Baked Pasta with Meat

  • HoriatikiSalata - Greek Salad

  • Moussakas - Moussaka with Eggplant

Cuisine in different countries14
Cuisine in different countries

Greek cuisine

  • Arni me Patates - Roasted Lamb with Potatoes

  • Souvlaki - Skewered Kebabs

  • Gyro - Sliced Rotisserie-Roasted Meat

  • Spanakopita or Spanakotyropita - Spinach Pie with Cheese

  • Dolmathes or Dolmades - Stuffed Grape Leaves

  • Yemista me Ryzi - Meatless Stuffed Vegetables

Cuisine in different countries15
Cuisine in different countries

Spanish cuisine

  • Pulpo a la Gallega - Galician Octopus

  • CochinilloAsado - Roast Suckling Pig

  • Paella – Spanish rice dish

  • JamonIberico and Chorizo - Iberian Ham and Spicy Sausage

  • Gambas Ajillo - Garlic Prawns

Cuisine in different countries16
Cuisine in different countries

Spanish cuisine

  • Pescado Frito - Fried Fish

  • Tortilla Española - Spanish Omelete

  • Gazpacho - Cold Tomato Soup or Liquid Salad

  • QuesoManchego - Spanish Sheep Cheese

  • PatatasBravas - Fried Potatoes in Spicy Sauce


Slide 56

Food is an important part of religious observance for many faiths.

The role that food plays in each religion is varied and may include:

Food restrictions or fasting

Meal time restrictions

Festivals and celebrations


Slide 57

Types of major religions

Major religions that may impact on food choices include:






Religion and food preparation
Religion and food preparation

Slide 58

  • Preparing meals for customers who follow a religion or set of beliefs may require specific meals

  • Being aware of the main food restrictions will assist you to meet customer needs

  • Be guided by the customers as there are differing interpretations of how to implement food restrictions

  • The most commonly requested food restrictions include the following:

    • Halal

    • Kosher

    • Vegetarian

Catering to special days
Catering to special days

Slide 59

Special days and their traditional meals

In any country there are a number of special days that are celebrated.

What are special days:

Celebrated around the world?

Specific to your country or region?

What meals are traditionally served?

Catering to special days1
Catering to special days

Slide 60

Special days



Chinese New Year

Mother’s Day

Father’s Day

Valentines Day

Catering to special days2
Catering to special days

Slide 61

What days of the year are special in your country or region?

Public Holidays


Religious Days

Cultural Days

Special dishes and customer requests
Special dishes and customer requests

Select dishes taking into account cultural/cuisines or special customer requests

It is important that requests and preferences customers may have, be it as an individual or as a collective, are taken into consideration when selecting dishes.

Understanding customers
Understanding customers

Characteristics and needs of customers

The characteristics and needs of customers, include but not limited to:

  • Cultural

  • Health, dietary

  • Religious

  • Fads

  • Festivals

Understanding customers1
Understanding customers

Meal preferences

Their meal preferences including identification of:

  • Meals

  • Ingredients within these meals

  • Combination of ingredients

  • Preparation methods

  • Cookery methods

  • Presentation methods

Understanding customers2
Understanding customers

Dietary, cultural or religious requirements

What requirements do customers have which can be based on:

  • Diet

  • Culture

  • Religion

Understanding customers3
Understanding customers

Consumer Expectations

Expectations of consumers are difficult to pinpoint, but are nevertheless motivated by the following areas:

  • Personal preference and knowledge of the diner

  • Cultural or religious preferences and restrictions

  • Awareness of the food being eaten

  • Value for money

Key factors influencing food choices
Key factors influencing food choices

The factors that have a significant influence on food choice are:

  • Nutrition

  • Key components of meals

  • Health requirements

  • Dietary requirements

  • Food Allergies

  • Vegetarian


Importance of nutrition

The food we eat contains nutrients. A nutrient is a source of nourishment found in food and they are needed by the body to:

  • Provide fuel for energy

  • Provide materials for growth, repair and maintenance

  • Provide special elements needed for body processes.


Types of nutrients

The nutrients that the body needs are:

  • Carbohydrates

  • Protein

  • Lipids

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

Key components of meals
Key components of meals

Key components of menus include:

  • Proteins

  • Starches

  • Vegetables

  • Flavourings

  • Cooking methods

  • Service styles

Health requirements
Health requirements

Five core food groups

A healthy diet can be achieved by eating a variety of nutritious foods from the five food groups every day:

  • Grain foods

  • Vegetables and legumes/beans

  • Lean meats, poultry fish, eggs , tofu, nuts, seeds and legumes/beans

  • Fruit

  • Milk, yoghurt, cheese or alternatives

Dietary requirements
Dietary requirements

Slide 72

Special dietary specifications

Low Lactose

Lactose Intolerant




Food allergies
Food allergies

A food allergy is when a persons’ immune system reacts to a protein in foods and produces antibodies to “fight the protein.

Common foods which trigger an allergic reaction are:

  • Seafood

  • Eggs

  • Nuts

  • Milk

  • Wheat

  • Soy beans

Vegetarian diets
Vegetarian Diets

What is a vegetarian?

  • The term 'vegetarian' is not clear-cut and includes a wide range of attitudes and eating behaviours

  • The foods vegetarians eat is often dependant on the reasons or beliefs for following the diet.

Vegetarian diets1
Vegetarian Diets

Reasons for vegetarian diet

Common reasons for following a vegetarian diet for the include:

  • Religious beliefs

  • Cultural beliefs

  • Health related

  • Cruelty to animals

  • Economics

  • Political

  • Environmental

  • Aesthetic

Vegetarian diets2
Vegetarian Diets

Types of vegetarian diets

  • Lacto-ovo vegetarian diet

  • Lacto vegetarian diet

  • Vegan diet

  • Other vegetarian diets

    • Semi/Demi vegetarian

    • Pescetarian

    • Pollotarian

Understanding market trends
Understanding market trends

Influences on market trends

Market trends may be influenced by:

  • Media influence

  • Contemporary dishes

  • Seasonal items and availability

  • Cultural and ethnic influences

  • Social influences

Identify market trends
Identify market trends

Global food and beverage trends

  • What are different food and beverage trends around the world?

  • Refer to Manual for examples

Prepare resources
Prepare resources

Ensure resources are available to prepare, cook and serve special cuisines

In order to prepare special dishes, a range of resources are required.

  • What resources are required?

  • How can these be arranged?

Prepare resources1
Prepare resources

Slide 80


Naturally staffing is a key resource when making meals.

Considerations include:

  • Availability of staff

  • Number of staff

  • Skills and knowledge of staff

Prepare resources2
Prepare resources

Slide 81


  • Knives, spoons and other utensils

  • Weighing and measuring equipment

  • Small equipment

  • Large equipment

  • Cooking equipment

  • Holding equipment

  • Storage equipment

  • Specialist equipment

Prepare resources3
Prepare resources

Slide 82


  • General storage areas

  • Dry store

  • Fridges

  • Freezers

  • Service containers

  • Bain maries

  • Food transportation items

Prepare resources4
Prepare resources

Slide 83


  • Spices and herbs

  • Fruit and vegetables

  • Dairy

  • Meat and small goods

  • Poultry and game

  • Fish and seafood

Element 2:

Identify and purchase foods

Identify and purchase foods
Identify and purchase foods

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Select food items/commoditiesin accordance with dish requirements

  • Identify and select suppliers for purchasing of products

  • Ensure availability of food items

Identify and purchase foods1
Identify and purchase foods

Select food items/commodities in accordance with dish requirements

Once all customer needs, preferences, culture and traditional influences have been identified it is now time to select food items that are required to construct special dishes.

  • What activities are associated with identifying and purchasing food?

Selecting food for special meals
Selecting food for special meals


What needs to be considered when developing:

  • Menus

  • Special meals within the menus

Elements of a meal
Elements of a meal

Elements are all the components that make a dish or menu item complete.

  • Piece of meat, poultry or fish

  • Farinaceous component

  • Vegetables

  • Sauce

  • Garnish

  • Salad

  • Condiment

Preparing a balanced dish
Preparing a ‘balanced’ dish

Culinary balance

Meals prepared for customers should take into consideration:

  • Ingredients

  • Texture

  • Colour

  • Presentation

Preparing a balanced dish1
Preparing a ‘balanced’ dish

Nutritional Balance

It is also important to ensure ingredients come from the five core food groups:

  • Grains

  • Vegetables and legumes

  • Protein

  • Dairy

  • Fruit

Selecting items
Selecting items

Selecting food items for special cuisines

The selection of these menu items will be based on:

  • Ingredients involved

  • Complexity of the dish

  • Expertise of the staff preparing the dish

  • Time taken to prepare the dish

  • Level of preparation and/or cooking performed in front of the guest

Types of food items
Types of food items


Appetisers are menu items offered for guests to eat prior to their main course.

  • What appetisers are commonly served?

Types of food items1
Types of food items


  • Hors d’oeuvres

  • Canapés

  • Savouries

  • Antipasto

  • Tapas

  • Finger foods

  • Sandwiches

Types of food items2
Types of food items


A traditional course on many menus, soups provide low food cost items for many premises.

  • What soups are commonly served?

Types of food items3
Types of food items


  • Clear soups

  • Broths

  • Purées

  • Cream soups

  • Bisque

Types of food items4
Types of food items


Pasta is a common item

  • What types of pasta are there?

  • What are popular pasta dishes?

Types of food items5
Types of food items


  • Salads may exist as a stand-alone menu item or as an accompaniment to a main course dish.

  • They often come with a dressing

  • What types of salads and dressings are commonly served?

Types of food items6
Types of food items


Salads can be served in simple form such as a ‘green salad’ or may be more intensive including a variety of:

  • Hot or cold meat

  • Raw or cooked vegetables

  • Nuts and seeds

  • Cheeses

  • Hot or cold dressings

Types of food items7
Types of food items


Caesar salad

Caesar salad is one of the most popular salads

  • What is in this salad?

  • What is the history of this salad?

  • Why is it globally popular?

Types of food items8
Types of food items

Meat, poultry, fish and seafood

Staple ingredients can be:

  • The stand-alone ingredient for a dish

  • Ingredients in other menu items

  • What types of meat, poultry, fish and seafood are commonly served?

Types of food items9
Types of food items


  • Beef

  • Lamb

  • Veal

  • Goat

  • Pork

Types of food items10
Types of food items


  • Chicken

  • Turkey

  • Squab

  • Pheasant

  • Duck

  • Goose

Types of food items11
Types of food items


  • Flat fish

  • Round fish

  • Fillets

  • Whitefish

  • Oily fish

Types of food items12
Types of food items


  • Shellfish

  • Molluscs

  • Crustaceans

  • Octopus and squid

Types of food items13
Types of food items


  • What types of vegetables are commonly served?

  • How are they prepared and served?

Types of food items14
Types of food items

Specialist cuisine food items

Specialist cuisine food items commonly relate to cuisines of various cultures.

  • What are different cuisines in different countries?

Types of food items15
Types of food items

Specialist cuisine food items

  • Offal

  • Aromatics, flavourings, spices, spice mixes and herbs

  • Garnishes

  • Seeds and nuts

  • Grains, rice and pulses

  • Fungi

  • Preserves, condiments and accompaniments

Types of food items16
Types of food items

Specialist cuisine food items

  • Fruits, vegetables, flowers and salad items

  • Aquatic plants such as seaweeds

  • Specialist cheeses and dairy products

  • Sweeteners such as palm sugar, honey and glucose

  • Fats and oils

  • Bush foods

Types of food items17
Types of food items


Desserts are served after the main course

  • What types of desserts are commonly served?

Types of food items18
Types of food items


  • Puddings, cakes and flans

  • Fritters

  • Prepared fruit

  • Soufflé

  • Crepes and omelettes

  • Ice cream, bombes and parfaits

Types of food items19
Types of food items


A growing focus on healthy eating has seen increased up-take of fruit in premises.

  • What types of fruit items and dishes are commonly served?

Types of food items20
Types of food items


There are endless types of cheese.

Cheese is normally sliced or portioned and served with a variety of accompaniments including:

  • Fruit

  • Nuts

  • Olives

  • Crackers

  • Bread

Selecting suppliers
Selecting suppliers

When choosing a supplier for you need to consider the following factors:

  • The product range

  • The availability of products

  • Delivery requirements

  • Cost

  • Trading terms

Availability of ingredients
Availability of ingredients

Slide 114

Sources of ingredients

Local Supply

Regional Supply

International Supply

Availability of ingredients1
Availability of ingredients

Slide 115

Seasonal availability

The advantages of using foods that are in season are:

  • Foods are at their best quality

  • Foods in are available in abundance and easy to access

  • Foods are usually cheapest

  • Selecting fresh foods can assist with meeting dietary needs

  • Seasonal food can be appealing to discerning customers

Availability of ingredients2
Availability of ingredients

Slide 116

Ingredients and their climates

What ingredients are found in the following climates:

Cold climates

Warm climates

Tropical climates

Other climates

Availability of ingredients3
Availability of ingredients

Slide 117

Quality and quantity of ingredients

There is an ever increasing range of ingredients for you to choose from including:

  • Raw foods

  • Convenience foods

Availability of ingredients4
Availability of ingredients

Slide 118

Cultural varieties and ingredients

A similar dish may have cultural variations.

Selecting the most suitable ingredients will require knowledge of these differences.

What flavourings would be used these rice dishes:

  • Chinese Fried Rice

  • Indonesia Nasi Goreng

  • Spanish Paella

  • Italian Risotto

Availability of ingredients5
Availability of ingredients

Slide 119

Storage of ingredients

Stored foods need to be handled correctly.

  • The storage area needs to be:

    • Kept clean

    • Well ventilated

    • Have appropriate lighting

    • Food safe shelving

  • The storage facility needs to be conveniently located

  • And in a secure storage area.

Element 3:

Identify and use specific equipment for special cuisines

Identify and use specific equipment for special cuisines
Identify and use specific equipment for special cuisines

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Identify and use specific equipment requirement for cuisines

  • Source specific equipment

Kitchen equipment
Kitchen equipment

Slide 122

Commercial kitchens have a wide range of equipment.

The correct selection of equipment can affect the resulting meals in terms of:





Kitchen equipment1
Kitchen equipment


  • Chef’s knife

  • Boning knife

  • Paring knife

  • Turning knife

  • Palette knives

  • Wooden storage block

Kitchen equipment2
Kitchen equipment


  • Carving fork

  • Peelers

  • Parisienne scoop

  • Steel

  • Cutting board

  • Toolboxes, wraps and cases

Kitchen equipment3
Kitchen equipment

Weighing and measuring equipment

  • Weighing scales

  • Portion-control utensils:

    • Buckets

    • Cup measure

    • Spoon measure

Kitchen equipment4
Kitchen equipment

Small kitchen equipment

Small equipment used to prepare items can include, but certainly not limited to:

  • Bowls

  • Colanders

  • Chinois

  • Graters

  • Spoons; metal and wooden

  • Whisks

  • Vegetable peelers

Kitchen equipment5
Kitchen equipment

Small kitchen equipment

  • Food processors

  • Slicers

  • Mixers

  • Blenders

Kitchen equipment6
Kitchen equipment

Cooking equipment

  • Pots, bowls and pans

  • Woks

  • Stoves

  • Multi process ovens

  • Brat pans

  • Grillers

  • Salamanders

  • Fryers

Kitchen equipment7
Kitchen equipment

Slide 129

Specialised Equipment

Cooks are usually able to prepare most dishes with the basic requirements.

However, when you are preparing specialised cuisines the equipment you require may also need to be specialised.

  • What are specialised cuisine items?

  • What equipment is needed?

Kitchen equipment8
Kitchen equipment

Holding equipment

  • Fridges

  • Freezers

  • Bain-marie

Sourcing kitchen equipment
Sourcing kitchen equipment

Sourcing, installing and preparing equipment

  • Where can kitchen equipment be sourced from?

  • Who gives approval for their purchase?

  • What needs to be installed?

  • What needs to be prepared in order to make it ready for use?

Element 4:

Prepare, cook, and serve special cuisine

Prepare cook and serve special cuisine
Prepare, cook, and serve special cuisine

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Prepare food items taking into account special preparation techniques

  • Cook food items using appropriate equipment and methods of cookery

  • Prepare and use garnishes, sauces and accompanimentsappropriate to special cuisines

  • Serve food items in accordance with special cuisines requirements

Prepare food
Prepare food

Slide 134

Consider elements of food production

Producing food in the commercial environment is multidimensional.

Service is about coordinating all these elements:

  • Organising and preparing all food items ready for service (mise-en-place)

  • The service equipment clean, heated and stacked ready for service

  • Heating or cooking the components correctly

  • Plating the dishes consistently and attractively

Prepare food1
Prepare food

Follow standard recipes

Each server will need to know:

  • What ingredients are used in each special dish

  • The expected and acceptable quality of each ingredient

  • The amount or volume of each ingredient

  • How it is to be prepared, cooked and served

Prepare food2
Prepare food


This is a French term meaning ‘to put in place’.

It means getting everything ready before you start cooking so that you don’t have to interrupt the preparation process while you look for something.

Prepare food3
Prepare food

Identify ingredients

Ingredients may include raw and pre-prepared/convenience and must include:

  • Dairy products and eggs

  • Meat, fish/seafood and poultry, fresh, frozen and processed

  • Dry goods, including herbs, spices, flours, sugar, rice, pasta, bread products and boosters

  • Fruit and vegetables

  • Smallgoods

  • Specialist cuisine items

  • Liquid ingredients, including juices, milk, cream, alcohol, vinegar and oils.

Prepare food4
Prepare food

Select and assemble ingredients

Select and assemble the ingredients should include:

  • Reference to menus being presented

  • Bookings received

  • Service style being offered

  • Establishment requirements in relation to standard recipes, house preferences, signature dishes and recipe cards

  • Matching type and quality of ingredient selected to intended use of the item

Prepare food5
Prepare food

Select and assemble ingredients

  • Ensuring the safety of all foodstuffs selected

  • Ensuring quantity of ingredients assembled matches identified/expected trading demand

  • Protecting the integrity and food safety of items

  • Safely transporting, and storing foods

  • Completing necessary internal documentation

Prepare food6
Prepare food

Preparing vegetables and fruits

  • Washing

  • Peeling

  • Cutting

  • Precision cutting

Prepare food7
Prepare food

Types of cuts

  • Slice

  • Chop

  • Dice

  • Shred

  • Crush

Prepare food8
Prepare food

Prepare meat

  • Clean the meat of all unwanted manner

  • Portion as needed

  • Slice, mince, cut as required

  • Place onto food storage container

  • Cover and label

  • Chill in coolroom until cooking is required

Prepare food9
Prepare food

Preparing seafood - fish

  • Kill humanely if required

  • Clean the fish of all unwanted manner

  • Bleed then gut

  • Wash internal cavity

  • Scale fish

  • Portion as required or leave whole

  • Place onto food storage tray, cover, label and chill until required

Prepare food10
Prepare food

Preparing seafood - shellfish

  • In the case of shell fish

  • Kill humanely as or if required

  • Clean the shell fish of all unwanted manner

  • Clean and portion as required

  • Keep chilled until cooking process

  • Store in a clean tray

  • Store at the correct temperature

Prepare food11
Prepare food

Preparing poultry

  • Clean the poultry of all unwanted manner

  • Portion as needed

  • Slice, mince, cut as required

  • Place into food storage container

  • Cover and label

  • Chill in coolroom until cooking is required

Prepare food12
Prepare food

Preparing game

  • Clean the game of all unwanted manner

  • Portion as needed

  • Slice, mince, cut as required

  • Place into food storage container

  • Cover and label

  • Chill in coolroom until cooking is required

Prepare food13
Prepare food

Slide 147

Designing meals for specific religions

Preparing meals for customers who follow a specific religion requires a sound understanding of the role of food.

Restrictions may apply to:

  • Certain foods

  • Times of the day

    It is best to be guided by the instructions you receive as there are many interpretations of these practices.

Prepare food14
Prepare food

To design suitable meals it is useful to be aware of the key considerations for the five major religions:


  • Relatively few restrictions


  • Avoid pork and pork products, use Halal products


    • Avoid beef, beef products and alcohol, include vegetarian options

Prepare food15
Prepare food


  • Include vegetarian options


  • Kosher laws apply to many foods

Prepare food16
Prepare food

Slide 150

Preparing vegetarian meals

You will need to know what type of vegetarian you are catering for:

  • Lacto-ovo

  • Lacto

  • Vegan

Prepare food17
Prepare food

Slide 151

Preparing vegetarian meals

Selecting suitable protein

An important consideration will be to ensure that you include suitable protein in the meals.

  • Dairy

  • Eggs

  • Tofu

  • Grains, nuts, seeds and legumes

Prepare food18
Prepare food

Preparing vegetarian meals

When designing meals for vegetarians consider using:

  • Vegetable stock

  • Fresh vegetable base sauces

  • Dairy replacements

  • A variety of legumes

  • A selection of herbs and spices

  • Sorbet and granita

Prepare food19
Prepare food

Preparing meals for food allergies

Customers with food allergens may have a variety of reactions to eating a food containing the allergen.

Make sure you are aware of:

  • The common food allergens:

    • Eggs, Seafood, Nuts, Dairy, Wheat and Soy

  • Hidden usages in dishes of foods which contain potential allergens

  • Food handling which minimises cross contamination.

Cook food
Cook food

Cook food items using appropriate equipment and methods of cookery

Now that food has been prepared, in most cases it must be cooked before serving.

  • What are different cooking methods?

  • What equipment is associated with each cookery method.

Cook food1
Cook food

Methods of cookery

  • Boiling

  • Poaching

  • Steaming

  • Grilling

  • Stewing

Cook food2
Cook food

Methods of cookery

  • Braising

  • Baking

  • Roasting

  • Shallow frying

  • Deep frying

Sauces garnishes and accompaniments
Sauces, garnishes and accompaniments

Sauces, accompaniments and garnishes

  • Sauces, garnishes and accompaniments are additions to the main ingredients of a meal.

  • They can be used to enhance the flavour, colour, aroma and overall presentation of the meal.

Prepare sauces
Prepare sauces


  • Sauce is a term used in cookery to describe a wide range of flavoured liquids that are served as part of the meal, or dish.

  • The addition of a sauce to a dish can be used to transform the overall presentation of a dish by adding flavour, moisture, richness and visual appeal.

Prepare accompaniments
Prepare accompaniments

  • There are endless accompaniments that can be served with food and beverage items

  • Most menu items will have traditional accompaniments that compliment or contrast tastes, textures and colours

Prepare accompaniments1
Prepare accompaniments


Accompaniments are complementary additions to the main ingredient of a meal.

Accompaniments are typically:

  • Vegetables

  • Fries

  • Steamed or fried rice

  • Side salads

  • Sauces and relishes

  • Salsa

Roast accompaniments
Roast accompaniments

Accompaniments for roasted meat

  • Roast lamb Mint sauce and gravy

  • Roast mutton Onion sauce and gravy

  • Roast pork Sage and onion stuffing, apple sauce and gravy

  • Roast veal Thyme, lemon and parsley stuffing and gravy

  • Roast beef Yorkshire pudding, horseradish sauce and gravy

Roast accompaniments1
Roast accompaniments

Accompaniments for roasted meat

  • Roast chicken Thyme, lemon and parsley stuffing and gravy

  • Roast duck Sage and onion stuffing, apple sauce and gravy

  • Roast turkey Chestnut or parsley stuffing, bread sauce, gravy, cranberry sauce/jelly

  • Roast game Cranberry sauce

Roast accompaniments2
Roast accompaniments

Accompaniments for roasted meat

Roasted meats are normally served with:

  • Roasted vegetables including potato, pumpkin and carrots

  • Steamed vegetables including cauliflower and broccoli

Seafood accompaniments
Seafood accompaniments

Accompaniments for seafood

  • Lemon wedges or slices

  • Tartare sauce

  • Chilli Sauce

  • Tabasco sauce

  • Mayonnaise

  • Dill

  • Parsley

  • Salsa

Seafood accompaniments1
Seafood accompaniments

Accompaniments for seafood

Seafood is normally served with:

  • Rice

  • Potatoes – normally French fries

  • Salad

Salad accompaniments
Salad accompaniments

Salad dressings

Some form of dressing is commonly served with salad.

Salads are usually served with a dressing to combine the ingredients, to add flavour and to lubricate.

The two main dressings are:

  • Vinaigrette (French dressing)

  • Mayonnaise

Salad accompaniments1
Salad accompaniments

Making vinaigrette

  • Vinaigrette is a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt and pepper.

  • As a general rule of thumb, the recommended ratio of oil to vinegar is 2 parts oil to 1 part vinegar.

Salad accompaniments2
Salad accompaniments

Accompaniments for salads

Salad is normally served with:

  • Bread – sticks, croutons, toasted

  • An accompaniment to a meat

Dessert accompaniments
Dessert accompaniments

Accompaniments for desserts

  • Sauces – hot or cold

  • Coulis – pureed fruit

  • Fruit

  • Ice cream

  • Yoghurt

  • Cream – fresh, whipped, clotted

  • Custard

Cheese accompaniments
Cheese accompaniments

Accompaniments for cheese

  • Nuts

  • Dried fruit

  • Fresh fruit

  • Olives

  • Pate

  • Dips

  • Cured meats

Cheese accompaniments1
Cheese accompaniments

Accompaniments for cheese

  • Pickled vegetables

  • Crudités (vegetable sticks).

  • Crackers

  • Bread

  • Rolls

  • Toast

  • Bread sticks

  • Wines, tokays, muscats and ports

Prepare garnishes
Prepare garnishes


  • Garnish refers to the decoration of food by the addition of other items.

  • Garnishes should be fresh, colourful, edible and should be suited to the meal.

Prepare garnishes1
Prepare garnishes


Common garnishes may include:

  • Lemon wedges

  • Herbs including parsley, rosemary, dill, basil

  • Carrot twirls

  • Vegetable juliennes

  • Croutons

Prepare garnishes2
Prepare garnishes

Non-edible garnishes

  • Bark

  • Skewers

  • Toothpicks

  • Flags

  • Other items

Serve food items
Serve food items

Serve food items in accordance with special cuisines requirements

Once all food items have been prepared, either cooked or in cold format, with appropriate sauces, garnishes and accompaniments added, it is now time to serve the food items.

It is important:

  • Items reach the customer in their intended format and temperature

  • Dishes look appealing and appetising

Serve food items1
Serve food items

Prepare service items

Possible service items can include:

  • Plates

  • Bowls

  • Platters

  • Jugs

  • Glassware

  • Special purpose equipment

  • Cutlery

  • Take away containers

Serve food items2
Serve food items

Serving temperature

In presenting food there is an absolute need to:

  • Present hot food, hot

  • Present cold food, cold

    This is not a safe food handling consideration, it is an aesthetic, sensory thing.

Serve food items3
Serve food items

What makes food appealing?

There are a variety of factors which contribute to this. Meals need to be:

  • Prepared and cooked correctly and appropriately

  • Satisfying

  • Nutritionally balanced

  • Appealing

Serve food items4
Serve food items

Slide 179

Food presentation

The key to attractive and appealing food presentation is to remember there are many elements, including:






Additionally consistency of presentation is important.

Element 5:

Store special cuisine products

Store special cuisine products
Store special cuisine products

Performance Criteria for this Element are:

  • Store fresh and/or Cryovac items correctly

  • Prepare and maintain correct thawing of special dishes

  • Store special cuisine products appropriately in correct containers

  • Label special cuisine products correctly

  • Ensure correct conditions are maintained for freshness and quality

Store special cuisine products1
Store special cuisine products

Store food items correctly

  • Food that has been delivered into a food business must be stored promptly and it must be stored under the correct conditions for each individual item.

  • As a reminder food can be defined as dry goods, dairy products, meat, poultry, seafood, fruit and vegetables and frozen goods.

Store special cuisine products2
Store special cuisine products

Storage areas

In relation to food there are 3 standard storage options:

  • Dry goods store

  • Refrigerated storage

  • Frozen storage

Store special cuisine products3
Store special cuisine products

Dry goods store

This is a non-refrigerated store where canned and dried food is stored.

  • What are examples of canned and dried food?

Store special cuisine products4
Store special cuisine products

Refrigerated storage

  • This is used to store fruit and vegetables, dairy products and meat.

  • It may take the form of coolrooms, domestic refrigerators, under-counter units or free-standing self-contained, glass-fronted units.

Store special cuisine products5
Store special cuisine products

Frozen storage

  • Any type of freezer can be used in a commercial situation – including domestic freezers, walk-in freezers, bench freezers and up-right freezers.

  • The critical requirement is that they be able to reach the necessary temperature.

Store special cuisine products6
Store special cuisine products

Maintaining specific storage areas

How can you maintain the following storage areas?

  • Frozen Foods

  • Meat Refrigerator

  • Fruit and Vegetables

  • Dry Store

  • Dairy Foods Refrigeration

Correctly thaw food
Correctly thaw food

Methods to thaw food

Frozen food must be thawed before use, also known as ‘defrosting, using one of three methods:

  • In a refrigerator/cool room

  • Using a microwave to defrost

  • Run the item under cold water

Correctly thaw food1
Correctly thaw food

Cautionary actions when thawing products

  • Train staff to wait until food is fully thawed before cooking

  • Train staff in proper thawing practices, including the need to plan defrosting needs

  • Discard all food that exceeds the ‘2/4 rule’

  • Throw out all food defrosted in an uncovered state, or which has defrosted in damaged packaging

  • Discard all food that has been thawed and re-frozen

  • Train staff not to re-freeze thawed product.

Store food in correct containers
Store food in correct containers

Importance of using correct containers

  • Reduces risk of contamination in the cool room

  • Containers are clean when they are placed into the cool room

  • Easier to stack goods in cool room if containers are all regular size

  • Easier to rotate stock in cool room

  • All stock is checked as it goes from cardboard box to clean plastic storage containers.

Store food in correct containers1
Store food in correct containers

Importance of correct storage

How should you correctly store each of the following food items?

  • Fresh meat

  • Vacuum packed meat

  • Poultry

  • Seafood

  • Unprocessed fruit and vegetables

  • Potatoes

  • Eggs

  • Pasta

Store food in correct containers2
Store food in correct containers

Storing cooked foods

  • All cooked foods needs to be stored in cool room in clean container.

  • These containers need to be clean each time they are used.

  • Never place newly cooked food into a container that has the same cooked food already in it and never transfer old cooked food into a container on top of newly cooked food.

Label food items
Label food items

Importance of labelling food items

  • Why is it important?

  • What food items are already ‘labelled’?

  • Which items do you need to label?

  • How can you do it?

  • Who should do it?

  • What information should be recorded?

Label food items1
Label food items

Information recorded on labels

Labels should have the following information on them:

  • Name of the product

  • Date of manufacture

  • Name of person who last worked on food (cooked the food)

  • Recommended use by date.

Label food items2
Label food items

Recording possible allergins

Any special dietary requirements may have to be listed.

Does it contain and possible allergen causing ingredients:

  • Wheat, gluten

  • Milk products

  • Soy products

  • Yeast

  • Eggs

  • Seafood allergies

  • Nuts, tree and ground

Label food items3
Label food items

Bin Cards

A ‘bin’ includes a shelf or a section on a shelf, where stock is stored, a container that is used to store stock, a cupboard used to store items.

Bin Cards are stock control cards that record:

  • The physical stock-on-hand in the ‘bin’

  • When stock was delivered, by date, and how much was received

  • Where stock has been issued to

Storage conditions and techniques
Storage conditions and techniques

Importance of correct storage techniques

It cannot be understated how important it is for staff to:

  • Follow and use correct storing techniques at all times

  • Ensure storerooms are kept in ideal conditions

Storage conditions and techniques1
Storage conditions and techniques

Stock rotation

It is standard procedure that all food stock delivered into a kitchen needs to be rotated so that the older stock is used before the newer stock.

  • Why is this important?

  • How can you rotate stock?

  • What activities are associated with rotating stock?

Storage conditions and techniques2
Storage conditions and techniques

Importance of stock rotation

This is to help avoid situations such as:

  • Stock loss due to items becoming out-of-date stock

  • Deterioration in product quality that may occur if items spend excessive time in storage

  • Food poisoning outbreaks caused by using out-of-date stock

Storage conditions and techniques3
Storage conditions and techniques

FIFO techniques

  • Move old stock forward and place the new stock behind it

  • Lift existing stock up and put new stock under it

  • Create a new storage area for new stock – and make sure the old stock is used before this new stack is started

  • Attach labels to stock to identify when items arrived and which ones must be used next

  • Use the use-by dates on stock to assist in determining which products to use next

Storage conditions and techniques4
Storage conditions and techniques

Checking quality of food items during stock rotation

When rotating stock you will be physically handling many items so it is a good opportunity to do two or more jobs at the same time.

  • How can you check the quality of food items?

  • What are you looking for?

Storage conditions and techniques5
Storage conditions and techniques

Checking quality of food items during stock rotation

  • Picking up and inspecting items

  • Moving boxes

  • A visual inspection of items

    • The use-by dates are current

    • Physical damage

    • Appearance

    • Smell

    • Signs of rodent attack

Storage conditions and techniques6
Storage conditions and techniques

Dispose of damaged or spoiled goods

Where an inspection of foodstuffs reveal damaged or spoiled supplies these need to be correctly disposed of, including:

  • Damaged food

  • Spoiled food

  • How should you dispose of these items?

Storage conditions and techniques7
Storage conditions and techniques

Reporting storage problems

Staff who identify a food hygiene hazard are expected to take immediate action within their scope of authority to resolve the issue.

  • The Food Safety Supervisor

  • A department or shift supervisor

  • The department or venue manager

  • The owner

  • Any member of the establishment food safety team/committee (where one exists)

  • Head office


Thank you!