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Lecture 13 Chapter 8

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  1. Lecture 13 Chapter 8 Genes and traits of interest II Neal Stewart

  2. Discussion questions 1. Other than the products discussed in this chapter, what other sorts of genes or strategies might be useful in engineering transgenic plants resistant to insects or pathogens? 2. Golden Rice producing provitamin A has the potential to help many impoverished people who might benefit from eating it. Although application of this technology is supported by many people and organizations, there are also some who oppose the technology. Considering their possible motivations and potential biases, discuss some of the reasons that groups have come out in favor or in opposition to Golden Rice. 3. What are the potential benefits of producing pharmaceutical proteins in plants? What are some of the disadvantages or potential dangers? 4. Animal genes can be inserted into plants and expressed. Would you be opposed to eating foods from plants expressing proteins encoded by animal genes? By human genes? Discuss the reasons for your answers.

  3. Insect resistance

  4. Controlling Colorado potato beetle is not easy

  5. Bt corn

  6. Bt cotton

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis Stewart, 2004. Genetically Modified Planet 2004

  8. Bt Cry structure III I II Stewart, 2004. Genetically Modified Planet 2004

  9. Figure 8.3

  10. Bt toxin Insect midgut cells that have bound Bt toxin. Same gut cells a few hours later– note the damage and leakage. Stewart, 2004. Genetically Modified Planet 2004

  11. Bt Insect midgut cells that have bound Bt toxin. Mutated receptors cannot bind Bt toxin. Receptors are not present– cells cannot bind Bt Stewart, 2004. Genetically Modified Planet 2004

  12. Different Bt Crys • Cry 1s—kills caterpillars (lepidoptera) • Cry 2s—kills caterpillars (lepidoptera) • Cry 3s—kills beetles (coleoptera) Canola plant expresses a Bt cry1Ac gene

  13. Transgenic disease resistance • Viruses (yes) • Bacteria (no) • Fungi (no) • Nematodes (no)

  14. Figure 8.4

  15. RNA virus structure Stewart, 2004. Genetically Modified Planet 2004

  16. Discussion question Other than the products discussed in this chapter, what other sorts of genes or strategies might be useful in engineering transgenic plants resistant to insects or pathogens?

  17. Figure 8.5

  18. Second generation Output traits

  19. Improved nutrition, better foods • Golden rice • Modified oils from oilseeds • Vitamin E enhancements

  20. Golden rice: producing provitamin A www.goldenrice.org

  21. Biotechnologist of the day:Ingo Potrykus

  22. Figure 8.6

  23. Golden Rice producing provitamin A has the potential to help many impoverished people who might benefit from eating it. Although application of this technology is supported by many people and organizations, there are also some who oppose the technology. Considering their possible motivations and potential biases, discuss some of the reasons that groups have come out in favor or in opposition to Golden Rice.

  24. Third generation Non-traditional products

  25. Examples • Pharmaceuticals • Oral vaccines • Phytoremediation • Phytosensors • Biofuels

  26. Plant-made pharmaceuticalsakaMolecular pharming Duckweed Grow in lab Or field Protein Purification Genetic Engineering Oral vaccine– eat the fruit, or purify the vaccine pill or injection Corn

  27. Fraunhofer USA: one plant-based platform to produce pharmaceutical proteins: vaccines http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCGFW1WOFTY

  28. What are the potential benefits of producing pharmaceutical proteins in plants? What are some of the disadvantages or potential dangers?

  29. Phytorediation exampleHow to remediate mercury in soil www.uga.genetics.edu/rmblab

  30. Phytosensor example:plants to detect landmines

  31. Phytosensor example:plants to detect landmines No TNT +TNT induction Using inducible promoter/GFP fusions

  32. So, transgenic plants could be used in a lot of applications… Are there any we should avoid?