Definition • The Earth has many different environments, varying in temperature, moisture, light, and many other factors. Each of these habitats has distinct life forms living in it, forming complex communities of interdependent organisms. A complex community of plants and animals in a region and a climate is called a biome.
There are 8 Major Biomes: • Tundra • Taiga (Boreal Forest) • Temperate Forest • Tropical Rain Forest • Grasslands Savanna and Temperate 6. Desert 7. Marine: Ocean and Freshwater
Tundra -”Top of the World” -Climate is cold -ground is frozen, known as permafrost -Average temperature is 10-20’F -Little water -Every animal must adapt to the cold -During the brief summers, the ground thaws and plants grow
Tundra Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels Carnivorous mammals: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, ravens, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, black flies and arctic bumble bees Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout Plants: lichen, cushion plants, berry bushes, cotton grass, dark red leaves
Taiga (B o r e a l F o r e s t) -Largest biome in the world. -Mostly Canada and northern Europe and Asia. -During summer, there are a lot of insects, therefore, birds migrate to feed. -Forests are prone to wildfires, so some trees adapt by growing thick bark. By Andy Marlin and Jimmy Willis
Temperate Forest -changing seasons -second most abundant amount of rainfall -deciduous trees: leaves turn color, fall and grow back -Eastern US, Eastern China, Japan, Europe
Tropical Rainforest Plants • Many different types of vegetation exist in the Tropical Forest. Some trees are 25-50 meters tall. Some plants include the jungle tree, flowers, orchids, ferns, mosses, palms, bromeliads, and vines. There are many plants still unknown, and some plants have cures for diseases such as malaria, cancer, and aids. The canopy that the plants form shade the forest floor and protect the animals.
Tropical Rainforest Animals Fifty percent of the worlds animal population is in the Tropical Forest. Some of these animals include primates, snakes, lizards, birds, insects, frogs, cats, bats, small mammals, and moths.
Savanna Animals giraffes, zebras, buffalos, kangaroos, mice, moles, gofers, ground squirrels, snakes, worms, termites, beetles, lions, leopards, hyenas, elephants, hippos, and jack rabbits.
Temperate Grassland Plants Flowers • asters • Blazing stars • Coneflowers • Goldenrods • Sunflowers • Clovers • Psoraleas • Wild indigos • Trees • Cottonwoods • Oaks • Willows • Grasses • Purple needlegrass • Blue grama • Gallet • Buffalo grass
Temperate Grassland Animals Gazelles and zebras eat vegetation, and are prey for animals such as lions. • Wild horses may be seen roaming around where there is tall grass. • Coyotes and foxes prey on some of the smaller animals, such as skunks and jack rabbits. • Hawks and owls are the more aggressive birds, but there are quails, grouses, meadowlarks, blackbirds, and sparrows
Deserts (Coastal and Cold) Cold Desert and Coastal Desert Biomes By Lauren Gallant and Melanie Powers
Coastal and Cold Deserts Animals Animals in the coastal desert include insects, coyotes, badgers, toads, great horned owls, golden eagles, bald eagles, lizards and snakes. Animals in the cold desert include, penguins, mites, worms, tuco-tucos, foxes, eagles, hawks and wolves.
Plants Semiarid Deserts • Many plants are found in semiarid deserts. Some of which include: • creosote bush, bur sage, white thorn, cat claw, mesquite, brittle bushes, lycium, cactus, & jujube.
DesertsAnimals • Some of these animals include: rabbits, kangaroo rats, bighorn sheep, pocket mouse, pronghorn antelope, & California thrasher.
Freshwater Plants pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack black spruce, marsh, flora, cypress and gum.
Review Questions 1. What are the 8 Biomes? 2. What are the two most unique characteristics about the different Biomes? 3. How does the type of flora depend on the types of fauna? 4. What are some similar human impacts on each Biome? 5. How can we protect our Biome?