Diogenes and AlexanderGilbert Highet • About the Author • About the Text introduction /structure of the text word study /expressions/sentence paraphrase • In-class Discussion questions on comprehension and appreciation • After-class Activities • Key to the Exercises vocabulary/grammar
About the Author • Gilbert Highet (1906-1978) He was born in Glasgow, Scotland, educated at Glasgow and at Oxford, and became a naturalized American citizen in 1951. He was known for his scholarly and critical writing.
About the Author • A teacher must believe in the value and interest of his subject as a doctor believes in health. • Many people have played themselves to death. Many people have eaten and drunk themselves to death. Nobody ever thought himself to death. • These are not books, lumps of lifeless paper, but minds alive on the shelves. • What is politics but persuading the public to vote for this and support that and endure these for the promise of those?
Introduction • The main hero in this story is obvious Diogenes. His main idea is that we should all live a simple life. A simple life means a natural life,and a natural life means a life without too many worldly possessions. He believes that our worldly possessions have no true value and tend to take away our freedom and happiness and turn us into slaves. At a time when many people are made to believe that money is everything,what Diogenes says can be a very valuable antidote, something that can help to restore our balance.
About the Text structure • Part 1 (para 1-10) Diogenes the baggar • Part 2 (para 11-13) Alexander the conqueror in sharp contrast to the baggar • Part 3 (para 14-17) (climax) the dramatic encounter between Diogenes and Alexander
About the Text style: contrast 1.Contrast between Diogenes and Alexander 2. Contrast within this contrast 1). The contrast between Diogenes and ordinary beggars between him and ordinary people between him and the other philosophers of his time between him and all those people who are busy preparing for war between him and all those who are ready to kiss the boats of Alexander 2). The contrast between Alexander and other Macedonians
About the TextWord Study • lunaticadj. sb who behaves in a crazy or very stupid way; a mad man word origin: Insanity was once believed to be controlled by the moon and its phases. Lunatic literally means “moonstruck”, subject to the changes of the moon, and comes from the Latin word luna,moon. • Know sb: you are quite familiar with the person know of sb: you have been told or you have read or heard about this person.
About the TextWord Study • mischievousadj. playing tricks on people or doing things to annoying or embarrass them e.g. a mischievous look/smile/trick a mischievous letter/rumor mischiefn. • mischief-maker: n. person who deliberately cause trouble or discord • abusen. : rude, angry, and offensive words
About the TextWord Study • squatter: n. a person who lives in an empty building or on a piece of land without pay any rent. • corruptadj. very bad morally e.g. a corrupt society corruption: n. dishonest, illegal, or immoral behavior • cask: n. a round wooden container used for storing wine or other liquids
About the TextWord Study • satirize:vt. to use satire to make fun of people’s faults e.g. a play satirizing the fashion industry satire satirical • convert:v [to] to change or make someone change their opinion, belief or habit. e.g. I have converted to decaffeinated coffee. convert sb to sth e.g. My daughter finally converted me to Gun ‘n’ Roses.
About the TextWord Study • expound: vt. ~sth (to sb) (fml) explain or make sth clear by giving details e. g. He expounded his views on education to me at great length. • doctrine: n. a belief or set of beliefs that form the main part of a religion or system of ideas. e.g. Marxist doctrine, the doctrine of predestination • elaborate: adj. carefully worked out and full of details e.g. elaborate furniture/meals/plan/system/hairstyle
About the TextWord Study • extravagancen. the act of spending a lot of money on things that are not necessary e.g. His extravagance explains why he is always in debt. extravagantlyadj. • procure v. ~ sth (for sb) to obtain sth, esp sth that is difficult to get e.g. The book is out of print and difficult to procure. procurementn.[u] (fml) e.g. the procurement of goods,raw materials, supplies,weapons
About the TextWord Study • perishable: adj. easy to fall into decay if not kept under specific conditions. e.g. Perishable food should be stored in a refrigerator. perishables: n. [pl.] goods (esp food) which go bad or decay quickly, such as fish or soft fruit • missionary: n. originally a person sent by a church to a foreign country to convert local people to Christianity Here: a person who feels that he has a mission or sacred duty to do sth
About the TextWord Study • chivalrous: adj. 1) behaving in a polite, kind, generous and honorable way, esp towards women 2) (in the Middle Ages) showing the qualities of a perfect knight. chivalryn. [u] • emulate: vt. ~ sb (at sth) (fml) try to do as well as or better than sb e.g. She tried to emulate her ealder sister at the piano. emulationn. [u] e.g. She worked hard in emulation of her elder sister.
About the TextWord Study • paradox: n. a statement that seems impossible because it contains two oppositing ideas that are both true. e.g. “More haste, less speed” is a well known paradox. paradoxicaladj. • unanimous: adj. ~ (in) 1) all agreeing on a decision or an opinion e.g. The villagers are unanimous in their opposition to the building of a bypass. 2) (of a decision, an opinion,etc) given or hold by everybody e.g. The proposal was accepted with unanimous approval. unanimouslyadv. unanimityn.
About the Text • convention: n. behavior and attitudes that most people in a society consider to be normal and right • Compare: notice the subtle difference between the following synonyms. • habit: (picking one’s nose; biting one’s nails; smoking; getting up early) • custom: (using chopsticks; wearing black in mourning; express love with a kiss,etc) • tradition: (respecting the old; cherishing the family; eating turkey on Thanksgiving; loving peace; always ready to help others) • convention: (married women taking their husbands’ names; shaking hands when you meet with friends; marrying within your own religion, etc)
About the Text • smile: an expression on your face in which your mouth curves upwards to show that you are happy, amused, friendly,etc. • grin: a wide smile • laugh: to make the sounds and movements of the face that people make when they think sth is funny • guffaw: a noisy, loud laugh • titter: to laugh quietly,esp when you are nervous • giggle: a quiet, repeated laugh
About the TextExpressions • a mischievous pebble: a pebble from a mischievous person. • by choice: If you so sth by choice, you do it because you want to do it and not because you are forced to do it. e.g. (1).The government ha claimed tahe many people are homeless by choice. (2). Yue fei did not withdraw his troops by choice. He was forced to do that by twelve successive imperial edicts. • by design: deliberately,intentionally e.g. Whether this happened by design or not we shall never know.
About the TextExpressions • out of (principle,etc) e.g. (1).Out of principle you should not give the contract to your relative’s company. (2). I opened the box out of curiosity and found it filled with gold. (3). I decided to visit him out of respect. (4). She began to learn how to cook out of interest, not out of necessity.
About the TextExpressions • to escape complexities and extravagances: to avoid complex lives and things that are not necessary. • the shapes and uses of a political power: how the government is organized and how it functions • a large corps of … a large group of people working together to do a particular job • fiery glance: passionate or fierce look
About the TextExpressions • the man of the hour: the most successful, important, powerful, or talked about person of the present times e.g. Pollution is one of the serious issues of the hour. • air of destiny: the air of someone who has the power to determine the course of events in future • to toil and sweat: to work very hard for a long time
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 1. He had …done his business like a dog at the roadside, washed at the public fountain. (para. 1) • He had emptied his bowels or passed water like a dog at the roadside. • 2. He knew they were mad, each in a different way. (para. 1) • He knew they were mad, each in a different way. Some were mad about money; some were mad about power; some were mad about sex.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 3. He thought everybody lived far too elaborately, expensively, anxiously. (Para 2) • He thought that our life is too complicated, too costly, and gives us too much pressure. He argues that we should simplify our life. • 4. He was not the first to inhabit such a thing. But he was the first who ever did so by choice, out of principle. • He was not the first to live in a cask. But he was the first who ever did so because he wanted to, based on a principle, and not by necessity, not because he was forced to.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 5. But he taught chiefly by example. • Diogenes also taught by talking to people, but he mainly taught by setting an example for others to learn from or using living people around him as his examples. • 6. in order to procure a quantity of false, perishable goods he has sold the only true, lasting good, his own independence. • In order to get a certain amount of material properties or worldly possessions which actually have no value and will not last, he has allowed himself to be controlled by these things and has given away his own independence which is the only thing that is true and can last.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 7. his life’s aim was clear to him: it was “to restamp the currency”: to take the clean metal of human life, to …,to imprint it with its true values. (para 5) • Diogenes is using the analogy of “restamping the currency” to mean the change of human values. Human life, in his opinion, is like clean metal, but marked with false values, and it is his intension to wipe out the false markings and print true values on it. • 8. Diogenes answered “I’m trying to find a man.” • He meant that all people he could see were only half men. Here the word “man” means a true man by Diogenes standard.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 9. Diogenes took his old cask and began to roll it up and down…”I feel I ought to do something!” • This shows Diogenes’s attitude towards war. He obviously thinks that war is silly. War is fought over land and other worldly possessions. Therefore it does not make any sense for people who do no care for these possessions. • 10. Only twenty, Alexander was far older and wiser than his years. • Alexander looked far older than a man of his age normally does, and was much wiser than a man of his age normally is.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 11. ..the young prince slept with the Iliad under his pillow and longed to emulate Achilles,…Asia to ruin. • Aristotle taught Alexander poetry. The young prince particularlly loved Homer’s poems, so much that he would sleep with the Iliad under his pillow and longed to follow Achilles’s example. His dream was to use his power for the exchange of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures. • 12. …Learned to seek out everything strange whichmight be instructive. • …learned to discover everything strange which might provide some useful information. Alexander was interested in strange things and wanted to benefit from his investigations into them.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 13. “Yes,” Said the dog. “stand to one side. You are blocking the sunlight.” • When Alexander asked Diogenes whether there was anything he could do for him, he of course was thinking of money, power, a job, a decent house or a warm garment. But Diogenes did not want any of these. What he wanted from the king was not to block the sunlight,not to interfere with his ife,not to stand in his way.
About the Textsentence paraphrase • 14. He understood Cynicism as the others could not. • While ordinary people thought that Diogenes was either a lunatic or a beggar, Alexander understood him because he was also a philosopher in away, and that was why he later took one of Diogenes’s pupils along with him in his expedition to India as his philosophical interpreter. • 15. He knew that of all men then alive in the world only Alexander the conqueror and Diogenes the beggar were free. • Alexander thought that he was free because he had absolute power and Diogenes was free because he didn't’t need any power.
In-class Discussion • About the climax: Diogenes’s encounter with Alexander 1). What does Diogenes mean when he says that Alexander is blocking his sun? 2). “He (Alexander) knew that of all the men then alive I the world only Alexander the conqueror and Diogenes the beggar were free?” Why?
In-class Discussion • 1). He means that the kind of freedom he promulgates is impossible if a person is blinded by power and money. And power and money are exactly what Alexander represents. Therefore from Diogenes’ point of view Alexander can only prevent his followers from seeing the sun, the truth. • 2). Alexander is free because he has all the power and money to satisfy people’s desires; Diogenes is free because he does not have any of those desires. He treats power and money as dirt. And it is for the same reason that Alexander admits that like himself, Diogenes is a citizen of the world,and if he were not Alexander, he would be Diogenes.
After-class Activities • 1). If the world were to follow Diogenes , what would be the results? • 2). Would you dismiss Diogenes’s philosophy altogether since it seems to be against progress and civilizatios? Have you learned anything from this essay? • 3). Does Diogenes remind you of any ancient Chinese philosopher? Would you like to make a comparison between them? • 4). If you also think of yourself as a person with a mission, a mission to serve the people, would you rather be Diogenes with his philosophy or Alexander with his power?
⑴ to scratch each other’s backs ⑵ to do business wit h that country ⑶ Publish or perish ⑷ to found a new religion ⑸ to convert RMB into foreign currency ⑹ to seek the truth Key to the Exercises 1.Translate • ⑺ to discard the old traditions • ⑻ to satirize human vanity • ⑼ to inhabit that island • ⑽ to admire their courage • ⑾ to neglect one’s duty • ⑿ to escape the consequences
⒀ to erase it from one’s memory⒁ to take command⒂ to block one’s way⒃ to ruin one’s reputation
⑴ 年久失修的防御工事 ⑵（美国历史上的）擅自占用土地的人所搭建的临时简陋房子 ⑶ 储物缸 ⑷ 容易变质的商品 ⑸ 社会习俗 ⑹ 摇摇晃晃，头重脚轻的酒鬼 ⑺ 隐士住的山洞 ⑻ 当前的风云人物 ⑼ 英雄人物 ⑽ 一种带有历史使命感的神态 ⑾ 看人时如火一般的眼光 ⑿ 战争引起的恐慌 ⒀ 如雨点一般的石头 ⒁ 一小撮捣乱分子
3. Translate. • 1) How do you account for his strange behavior. • 2) Let’s form a circle so that we can see each other when we talk. • 3) He appointed five people to handle the case. • 4) She claims to possess an unusual ability— the ability to cure diseases simply by her magic hand. • 5) In the story, this evil spirit often appeared in the form of a pretty lady. • 6) Where can I get a roll of film? • 7) He rolled up the painting and said that he wouldn’t part with it for anything less than half a million.
8) A woman lawyer has been recently appointed to the Supreme Court. • 9) Poverty alone cannot account for the increase of the crime rate. • 10) A big stone suddenly rolled down the hill. • 11) He just rolled his eyes philosophically and smiled. • 12) Let’s roll up our sleeves and start working. • 13) he hoped that he would be appointed (as ) the deputy general manager. • 14)Just give us a brief account of what actually happened. • 15) The police found a lot of valuables in his possession which he could not account for. • 16) Our two countries should never fight again on any account.
7. Translate with special attention to the different meanings of the same word or words which happen to have the same spelling. • 1) 这事和我们没有关系，他弄错了抱怨的对象。（to bark狗叫） • 2）我们都知道摆脱旧传统很难。（convention传统习惯） • 3）这树的皮里含有某种对癌症有疗效的物质。（bark of a tree树皮） • ４）共和党大会将在芝加哥召开。（convention年会） • ５）他们计划在那里地下深处钻一个洞来埋藏核废料。但是那可能是十分危险的。（to drill a hole钻个洞） • 6）语言训练需要大量的练习。但远不止这一个方面。（drill操练） • 7）他们为她准备了一顿极其丰富的酒席，希望它能有助于他们弄到那个合同。（an elaborate meal一顿丰盛的饭）
8）我们对这个计划只有一个大致的了解。你能否详细讲讲？（to elaborate on sth对某问题作进一步的发挥或提供更多的细节） • 9）在昏暗的房间里，瞳孔就放大，好让更多的光线进入。（pupil瞳孔） • 10）那男子又高又瘦，两眼目光锐利，鼻子又高又尖。（sharp eyes锐利的眼睛；a sharp nose又高又尖的鼻子） • 11）她机制敏锐，伶牙俐齿。（a sharp wit十分机智；a sharp tongue说话尖刻利害） • 12）那骑车人急转弯，失去了平衡。（a sharp turn突然的大转弯） • 13）这些学生当然很年轻，但是他们都很聪明，你别小看他们。（pupils学生；sharp聪敏，精明） • 14）“别再胡说八道了,” 她厉声说道。（to say sharply厉声说，毫不客气地说） • 15）根据证词，这男孩十点整买的这把锋利的刀。 • 16）你今天看上去很帅，你哪儿买的这间新夹克？（to look sharp看上去动人的，时髦的）
Key to the Exercises 4. Translating the sentences into English. • 1) Never before in history has the country been so prosperous as it is now. • 2) Not a single word did he utter throughout the half-day debate. • 3) At the head of the parade marched the guards of honor. • 4) Hardly had the two of them met when they began joking about each other. • 5) Not until Liu Bei visited Zhuge Liang’s hut for the third time did the latter agree to give up his life as a hermit.
6) Not only did she refuse to accept the award for the best director, she also refused to give any explanation. • 7）Nowhere else in the country have I seen beautiful gardens as in Suzhou. • 8) At one end of the room is a CEO-type of desk; behind it stands a large bookcase. • 9) Present at the commencement were teachers, parents and a vice-minister of education. • 10) Only at home does he feel at ease though he’s a great traveler and has been to many countries. 6.complete each of the following sentences with the most likely answer.