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MPLS deployment

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  1. Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)presented by:chitralekhatamrakar (B.S.E.)divyakrittamrakar (B.S.E.)Rashmishrivastava(B.S.E.)prakriti

  2. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks which directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. MPLS makes it easy to create "virtual links" between distant nodes. It can encapsulate packets of various network protocols

  3. MPLS deployment • MPLS is currently in use in IP-only networks and is standardized by the IETF in RFC 3031. It is deployed to connect as few as two facilities to very large deployments. For example, in the retail sector, it is not uncommon to see deployments of 2000 to 5000 locations to communicate transaction data to a headquarters data center. • In practice, MPLS is mainly used to forward IPdatagrams and Ethernet traffic. Major applications of MPLS are telecommunications traffic engineering and MPLS VPN

  4. How MPLS works • MPLS works by prefixing packets with an MPLS header, containing one or more "labels". This is called a label stack. Each label stack entry contains four fields • A 20-bit label value. • a 3-bit Traffic Class field for QoS (quality of service) priority (experimental) and ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification). • a 1-bit bottom of stack flag. If this is set, it signifies that the current label is the last in the stack. • an 8-bit TTL (time to live) field.

  5. MPLS Introduction • Motivation • MPLS Basics • Components and Protocols • Operation • Protocol Stack Architecture • Advantages and Disadvantages

  6. Motivation (cont.) • ATM • connection oriented - Supports QoS • fast packet switching with fixed length packets (cells) • integration of different traffic types (voice, data, video) … but there are also disadvantages

  7. Motivation (cont.) • ATM disadvantages • Complex • Expensive • Not widely adopted

  8. MPLS Introduction • Motivation • MPLS Basics • Components and Protocols • Operation • Protocol Stack Architecture • Advantages and Disadvantages

  9. MPLS Basics • Multi Protocol Label Switching is arranged between Layer 2 and Layer 3

  10. MPLS Basics (cont.) • MPLS Characteristics • Mechanisms to manage traffic flows of various granularities (Flow Management) • Is independent of Layer-2 and Layer-3 protocols • Maps IP-addresses to fixed length labels • Interfaces to existing routing protocols (RSVP, OSPF) • Supports ATM, Frame-Relay and Ethernet

  11. MPLS Introduction • Motivation • MPLS Basics • MPLS Components and Protocols • MPLS Operation • MPLS Protocol Stack Architecture • Advantages and Disadvantages

  12. Label-Switched Paths - LSPs • A path is established before the data transmission starts. • A path is a representation of a FEC.

  13. LSP Details • MPLS provides two options to set up an LSP • hop-by-hop routing Each LSR independently selects the next hop for a given FEC. LSRs support any available routing protocols (OSPF, ATM …). • explicit routing Is similar to source routing. The ingress LSR specifies the list of nodes through which the packet traverses. • The LSP setup for an FEC is unidirectional. The return traffic must take another LSP!

  14. Label Distribution Protocol - LDP • An application layer protocol for the distribution of label binding information to LSRs. • It is used to map FECs to labels, which, in turn, create LSPs. • LDP sessions are established between LDP peers in the MPLS network (not necessarily adjacent). • Sometimes employs OSPF or BGP.

  15. LDP details • LDP message types: • discovery messages—announce and maintain the presence of an LSR in a network • session messages—establish, maintain, and terminate sessions between LDP peers • advertisement messages—create, change, and delete label mappings for FECs • notification messages—provide advisory information and signal error information

  16. CR-LDP • Takes into account parameters, such as link characteristics (bandwidth, delay, etc.), hop count, and QoS. • It is entirely possible that a longer (in terms of cost) but less loaded path is selected. • Drawback: It adds more complexity to routing calculations.

  17. MPLS Introduction • Motivation • MPLS Basics • Components and Protocols • Operation • Protocol Stack Architecture • Advantages and Disadvantages

  18. MPLS Operation • The following steps must be taken for a data packet to travel through an MPLS domain. • label creation and distribution • table creation at each router • label-switched path creation • label insertion/table lookup • packet forwarding

  19. MPLS Operation Example

  20. Tunneling in MPLS • Control the entire path of a packet without explicitly specifying the intermediate routers. • Creating tunnels through the intermediary routers that can span multiple segments. • MPLS based VPNs.

  21. MPLS Introduction • Motivation • MPLS Basics • Components and Protocols • Operation • Protocol Stack Architecture • Advantages and Disadvantages

  22. MPLS Protocol Stack Architecture

  23. MPLS Introduction • Motivation • Basics • Components and Protocols • Operation • Protocol Stack Architecture • Advantages and Disadvantages

  24. MPLS Advantages • Improves packet-forwarding performance in the network • Supports QoS and CoS for service differentiation • Supports network scalability • Integrates IP and ATM in the network • Builds interoperable networks

  25. MPLS Disadvantages • An additional layer is added • The router has to understand MPLS

  26. Summary of MPLS • Simplify packet forwarding based on a fixed length label • Enable explicit routing in IP networks • Can be used for traffic management, QoS routing • Enable fast restoration from failures.

  27. MPLS Introduction Thank you!