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5. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify Computer Components Describe Data Representation Contrast mainframes, minicomputers, supercomputers, PCs, workstations *. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Compare arrangements of computer processing: Client/Server, network.

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slide1

5.

COMPUTERS AND

INFORMATION PROCESSING

learning objectives
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Identify Computer Components
  • Describe Data Representation
  • Contrast mainframes, minicomputers, supercomputers, PCs, workstations

*

learning objectives3
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • Compare arrangements of computer processing: Client/Server, network.
  • Describe media for storing data
  • Describe Input/Output Devices
  • Describe multimedia, trends

*

computer components

CPU

INPUT DEVICES

SECONDARY STORAGE

OUTPUT DEVICES

COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

PRIMARY STORAGE

Computer Components

BUSES

how characters are presented
How Characters are Presented
  • BIT:Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not
  • BYTE:Group of bits for one character
    • EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte)
    • ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte)
  • PARITY BIT:extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors

*

examples of bytes
C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 67

A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 65

T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 84

Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number

*

EXAMPLES OF BYTES

EBCDIC ASCII Decimal

(assume even-parity system)

Parity bit

computer time
Computer Time

Millisecond.001 second thousand15min 40 sec

Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days

Nanosecond .001microsecond billion31.7 years

Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion31,700 years

*

# PER COMPARED

NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND

5.7

memory size
Memory Size
  • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes
  • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes
  • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes
  • TERABYTES (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes

Differentiated by exponential power

*

5.8

computer generations
COMPUTER GENERATIONS

1.VACUUM TUBES:1946-1956

5.9

computer generations10
COMPUTER GENERATIONS

1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956

2. TRANSISTORS:1957-1963

5.10

computer generations11
COMPUTER GENERATIONS

1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956

2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963

3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS:1964-1979

5.11

computer generations12
COMPUTER GENERATIONS

1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1956

2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963

3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979

4. VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATEDCIRCUITS (VLSI):1980- PRESENT

*

5.12

terms for microprocessors
Terms for Microprocessors
  • Word Length:bits processed at one time (e.g., 32-bit processor)
  • MEGAHERTZ: processing speed; one million cycles per second (e.g., 1GHz)
  • Data Bus Width:bits moved between CPU & other devices (e.g., 133MHz motherboard)
  • RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computing:embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed (80/20 rule)
  • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX), 3D-Now!:special codes for improving multimedia applications

*

5.12

central processing unit cpu

ARITHMETIC/LOGIC

UNIT

CLOCK

ROM

RAM

PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

CONTROL UNIT

5.14

buses

PRIMARY

STORAGE

CPU

OUTPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY

STORAGE

INPUT

DEVICES

BUSES

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

5.15

types of memory
TYPES OF MEMORY
  • RAM (Working Area):Random Access Memory
    • Dynamic: Changes thru processing
    • Static: Remains constant (power on)
  • ROM :Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)
    • PROM: Program can be changed once
    • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light
    • EEPROM: Electrically erasable

*

5.16

addresses in memory

101

102

103

201

202

203

301

302

303

ADDRESSES IN MEMORY

Each location has an ADDRESS

Each location can hold one BYTE

5.17

alu control unit
ALU & CONTROL UNIT
  • Arithmetic-Logic UNIT:CPU component performs arithmetic (calculation) and logic (branching, decision) operations
  • Control Unit:CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system (traffic cop)

*

5.18

examples of microprocessors
Examples of Microprocessors
  • Intel:PII, PIII (up to 1GHz), P4
  • AMD:Athlon, Athlon Thunderbird (up to 1.2GHz), Duron (~800MHz)
  • Transmeta: Caruso (code morphing, lower power consumption) for laptop and handheld devices
  • Motorola: Chips for Power Mac

*

5.18

categories of computers
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
  • MAINFRAME
  • MINICOMPUTER
  • PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)
  • WORKSTATION
  • SUPERCOMPUTER

*

5.23

microcomputer
MICROCOMPUTER
  • Desktop or Portable
  • 64 to 256 Megabytes of RAM
  • Personal or business use
  • Affordable
  • “Assembled” (not “manufactured”) from many components (modular combination)
  • Can be networked
  • “Decentralization” from mainframe use

*

5.26

workstation
WORKSTATION
  • Desktop Computer
  • Powerful graphics
  • Extensive math capabilities
  • Multi-tasking
  • Usually configured to special functions such as CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS
  • Distinction from PC has been blurred

*

5.27

sequential parallel processing

Program

Program

TASK 1

RESULT

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

RESULT

Program

TASK 2

RESULT

CPU

SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING

SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL

5.29

centralized decentralized
CENTRALIZED / DECENTRALIZED
  • CENTRALIZED:Processing by central computer site
    • One standard
    • Greater control
  • DECENTRALIZED:Processing by several computer sites linked by networks
    • More flexibility
    • Faster response

*

client server
CLIENT / SERVER
  • NETWORKED COMPUTERS
  • CLIENT:where things are processed. User (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have
  • SERVER:hosting data and application, handle communications and other administrative works.

*

5.31

client server26

CLIENT SERVER

REQUESTS

DATA, SERVICE

USER INTERFACE

APPLICATION FUNCTION

DATA

APPLICATION FUNCTION

NETWORK RESOURCES

CLIENT / SERVER

5.32

cost reduction through task redistribution
Cost Reduction through Task Redistribution
  • Network Computer:NetPC (MS) and NC (IBM et al.) smart terminals
  • Appliance Computing: e.g., WebTV.

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO):must consider more than just the equipment price. Include costs in hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training

*

slide28

SECONDARY STORAGE

  • Disk
  • Tape
  • Optical storage

*

5.35

slide29

TRACKS AND SECTORS

EACH TRACK HOLDS

SAME AMOUNT OF DATA

TRACKS

START

OF

TRACKS

5.37

SECTOR

DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0

Source: Senn, Information Technology in Business1995

slide30

OPTICAL STORAGE

  • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES
  • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):
    • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable
    • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable
  • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data

*

5.38

slide31

MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE

  • ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE
  • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS
  • INEXPENSIVE
  • STORED IN SAFE LOCATION
  • CAN BE REUSED

*

5.40

peripheral devices
Peripheral Devices
  • POINTING DEVICES
  • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • OUTPUT DEVICES

*

5.41

pointing devices
Pointing Devices
  • KEYBOARD
  • MOUSE
    • WIRED
    • INFRA-RED
    • TRACKBALL
    • TOUCH PAD
  • JOYSTICK
  • TOUCH SCREEN

*

5.42

source data automation
Source Data Automation

CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION

  • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR)
  • BAR CODE
  • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTERRECOGNITION (MICR)

*

source data automation35
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • PEN-BASED INPUT:digitizes signature
  • DIGITAL SCANNER: translates images & characters into digital form
  • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:converts spoken word into digital form
  • SENSORS: devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)

*

5.44

output devices
Output Devices
  • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
  • PRINTER
  • PLOTTER
  • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE
  • MULTIMEDIA

*

5.45

data processing
Data Processing
  • BATCH PROCESSING:transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.
  • ON-LINE PROCESSING:transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices. “Interactive”

*

technology trends

TRANSISTORS PER CHIP

YEARS

TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
  • INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
  • VIRTUAL REALITY
  • ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB
  • SUPERCHIPS
  • FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
  • MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS
  • SMART CARDS
  • MICROMINIATURIZATION

*

5.49