edu 5900 kaedah penyelidikan n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
EDU 5900 KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 47

EDU 5900 KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

EDU 5900 KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN. Kaedah Penyelidikan Quasi- Eksperimen dan ex-post facto. Menerangkan konsep, tujuan dan kepentingan kaedah penyelidikan Quasi-Eksperimen dan ex-post facto. Menilai kesesuaian penggunaan kaedah tersebut bagi permasalahan kajian yang dikemukakan.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'EDU 5900 KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN' - camden-scott

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Menerangkan konsep, tujuan dan kepentingan kaedah penyelidikan Quasi-Eksperimen dan ex-post facto.

Menilai kesesuaian penggunaan kaedah tersebut bagi permasalahan kajian yang dikemukakan.

Merancang langkah-langkah pelaksanaan kajian mengikut kaedah tertentu.

Rekabentuk Quasi-EksperimenThe word "quasi" means as if or almost, so a quasi-experiment means almost a true experiment.
kenapa quasi eksperimen
Dinamakan Quasi-Eksperimental kerana penyelidikan yang dilakukan hampir menyerupai reka bentuk eksperimen, kecuali tiada pembahagian secara rawak dilakukan.

Pembahagian rawak sukar dijalankan dalam keadaan tertentu seperti pemboleh ubah atribut (jantina, ras, pendapatan penjaga dll) kerana akan menjejaskan pemboleh ubah seperti rasa terasing dalam kumpulan baru dan sebagainya. Oleh itu reka bentuk ini digunakan.

Kaedah reka bentuk quasi-eksperimen bukan sebenar-benar eksperimen kerana tiada pembahagian rawak dilakukan.

Gunakan kumpulan sedia wujud dalam (intact group).

Kenapa Quasi-Eksperimen?
quasi experimental designs

are usually constructions that already exist in the real world. Those designs that fall into the quasi-experimental category fall short in some way of the criteria for the true experimental group. A quasi-experimental design will have some sort of control and experimental group, but these groups probably weren't randomly selected. Random selection is usually where true-experimental and quasi-experimental designs differ.

  • Some advantages of the quasi-experimental design include:
  • Greater external validity (more like real world conditions)
  • Much more feasible given time and logistical constraints
  • Disadvantages:
  • Not as many variables controlled (less causal claims)
ciri ciri rekabentuk quasi eksperimen
Dua atau lebih daripada kumpulan responden yang tidak diagih secara rawak.

Memerlukan kawalan terhadap pemboleh ubah luaran yang tegas.

Mengutamakan perbezaan antara kumpulan responden secara semula jadi.

Ciri-Ciri Rekabentuk Quasi-Eksperimen

Perbezaan antara eksperimen dengan quasi-eksperimen.

True and Quasi-Experimental Designs.

Aktiviti bacaan: Sila baca artikel yang bertajuk;


Ex post facto

The Latin term "Ex post facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by reason of a subsequent act".

causal comparative studies
Go beyond relationships/associations to examine cause-and-effects.

Two types of these studies:

Ex Post Facto


Causal-Comparative Studies


ex post facto

Ex post facto

The Latin term "Ex post facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by reason of a subsequent act".

Ex post facto

‘from what is done afterwards’

Ex-post-facto designs ("after the fact")



Kaedah ini digunakan untuk mengenal pasti punca atau penyebab (IV) sesuatu kesan (DV) yang diperhati dimana IV adalah sesuatu yang telah berlaku dan tidak boleh dimanipulasikan(diluar kawalan penyelidik.

Casual Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another.

Lihat contoh dalam Noraini Idris (2010), ms. 230

causal comparative studies1
Important Issues:

Primary purpose should be developing cause-and-effect relationships when experimentation is not possible

The “intervention” (IV) must have already occurred

Must identify and consider extraneous variables

Differences between the groups not due to the independent variable should be controlled

Be careful with causal conclusions

Causal-Comparative Studies


Reka bentuk ini menekankan sebab yang dijangka.

Contoh 1: Adakah program pendidikan pemulihan meningkatkan prestasi 3M murid-murid yang lemah?

Contoh 2: Adakah program kaunseling individu meningkatkan motivasi murid bermasalah?

Tafsiran sebab-akibat (cause-effect relationship)

Penyelidik perlu memastikan:

Terdapat hubungan antara A (IV) dan B (DV);

A datang dahulu daripada B;

Tidak ada kesan pemboleh ubah luaran terhadap A, B atau interaksi A dan B.


Tiga Jenis Bukti Yang Perlu

Untuk Mengesahkan Hubungan Sebab-akibat

Perhubungan statistik yang signifikan antara pemboleh ubah bebas dan bersandar wujud dengan sah.

Pemboleh ubah bebas wujud sebelum pemboleh ubah bersandar.

Pemboleh ubah lain tidak mempengaruhi pemboleh ubah bersandar.


Two Basic Approaches to Ex Post Facto Research

Begin with subjects who differ on an independent variable (such as their principal instrument/voice) and study how they differ on dependent variables (such as levels of performance anxiety or music theory test scores).

Begin with subjects who differ on a dependent variable (such as attrition from music--comparing those students who drop out of music with those who persist) and study how they differ on various independent variables (such as how much they practice, how they feel about their relationship with their teacher, how they feel about themselves as musicians, etc.).


This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-world situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact."

For example, it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study, specific reasons for the differences would be explored, such as differences in income, ethnicity, parent support, etc.

Studies that investigate possible cause and effect relationships by observing an existing condition or state of affairs and searching back in time for plausible causal factors.

The ex post facto design is a variation of the "after-only with control group" experimental design.

The chief difference is that both the experimental and control groups are selected after the experimental variable is introduced rather than before.

Explores possible causes and effects.

The independent variable is not manipulated, it has already been applied.

Focuses first on the effect, then attempts to determine what caused the observed effect.

characteristics of ex post facto
Researcher takes the effect/dependent variable and examines it retrospectively

Establishes causes, relationships or associations and their meanings.

Researcher has little to no control over independent variables.

Flexible by nature.

There is a control or comparison group.

Intact groups are used.

The treatment is not manipulated, it has already occurred.

There may be both “treatment” and “control” groups, however these will be existing, not assigned by the researcher.

There is no manipulation of conditions

Characteristics of Ex Post Facto
ex post facto research
Researcher cannot manipulate some variables and therefor selects participants that have certain values for those variables by themselves (gender, personality, illness, ...)Ex Post Facto research

The experimenter does not manipulate the IV... that is subjects cannot be randomly assigned to the levels of the IV - rather they assign themselves because the IV is not manipulated, it also qualifies as a descriptive technique

when to use this
You can use this where more powerful experimental designs are not possible; when you are unable to select, control and manipulate the factors necessary to study cause and effect relationships directly, or when control variables except a single independent variable may be unrealistic and artificial.When to use this?
ex post facto advantages and disadvantages

Show a correlation where more rigorous experimentation is not possible

Exploratory tool

Useful to avoid articiality in the research.

Shows cause and effect relationships


Lack of control for independent variable and randomizing subjects.

Never certain if causative factor has been included or identified

Relationship between two factors does not est. cause and effect.

May be regarded as too flexible.

Ex post facto advantages and disadvantages

Melibatkan perbandingan antara kumpulan yang sedia wujud

  • Contoh: Menyelidik murid-murid yang menonton rancangan belajar bahasa Inggeris melalui siaran TV dan membandingkan prestasi mereka untuk mengkaji sama ada menonton program bahasa Inggeris di TV dapat membantu meningkatkan pencapaian mata pelajaran tersebut. Murid-murid dikumpulkan dalam beberapa kumpulan mengikut banyaknya mereka menonton siaran tersebut.

Examples of Ex Post Facto Studies

  • What is the effect of day care on the social skills of children?
  • What is the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and self concept?
  • "smoking causes cancer”
ex post facto example
Ex Post Facto - example

Depression in rape victims

research design
Research design

X1 = rape victim

X2 = control

Yij = average depression score in group i, at time j

---- indicates possible unequality of groups in both conditions



  • Kajian perbandingan sebab perlu digunakan apabila kajian eksperimen tidak dapat dilakukan.
  • Keadaan sebab mesti berlaku sebelumnya.
  • Pemboleh ubah ekstranous perlu dikenal pasti dan dicatat.
  • Perbezaan antara kumpulan perlu dikawal.
  • Hubungan sebab-akibat perlu dinyatakan dengan berhati-hati!

Baca Noraini Idris (2010), ms. 235 (Jadual 12.1)

what is mixed methods research
A mixed methods research design is a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and “mixing” both quantitative and qualitative research and methods in a single study to understand a research problem. What Is Mixed Methods Research?
combined designs and uses
Combined Designs and Uses

Using quantitative and qualitative data for individuals to study problems that they face in their setting

Combining quantitative and

qualitative data to understand and explain a research problem better.

Mixed Methods




when to use mixed methods designs
When both quantitative and qualitative data, together, provide a better understanding of your research problem than either type by itself

When one type of research (qualitative or quantitative) is not enough to address the research problem or answer the research questions.

To incorporate a qualitative component into an otherwise quantitative study

To build from one phase of a study to another

Explore qualitatively then develop an instrument

Follow-up a quantitative study qualitatively to obtain more detailed information

When to Use Mixed Methods Designs
identifying a mixed methods study in the literature
The title includes words such as “mixed methods” or “multimethod,” etc.

Data collection section indicates both qualitative and quantitative data were collected.

Purpose statement and/or research questions indicate that the researcher intends to collect both quantitative and qualitative data during the study.

Priority or weight: Qualitative, quantitative, or both equally

Sequence of collecting quantitative and qualitative data is indicated

Analyze both data sets

Combined in one analysis (integrated)

Separate analysis

Identifying a Mixed Methods Study in the Literature
a notation system for designs
A Notation System for Designs

Study #1 QUAL + QUAN

+indicates the simultaneous or concurrent collection

of quantitative and qualitative data

Study #2 QUAN qual

Shows sequential collection of

quantitative and qualitative data


Uppercase letters indicate a priority or increased

weight for quantitative and/or qualitative data.

Lowercase letters indicate a lower priority or weight

for either quantitative and/or qualitative data.

types of mixed methods designs
Types of Mixed Methods Designs

I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design



Data and Results


Data and Results


II. Explanatory Mixed Methods Design


Data and Results


Data and Results


III. Exploratory Mixed Methods Design


Data and Results


Data and Results


mixed methods designs explanatory design
Researcher places priority on quantitative (QUAN) data collection and analysis.

Researcher collects quantitative data first in the sequence.

Researcher uses the qualitative data to explain the results of the quantitative data.

Mixed Methods Designs: Explanatory Design
mixed methods designs exploratory design
Research emphasizes qualitative (QUAL) data rather than quantitative (quan) data.

Researcher has a sequence of data collection that involves collecting qualitative data followed by quantitative data.

Researcher plans on the quantitative data to build on or explain the initial qualitative findings.

Mixed Methods Designs: Exploratory Design
key characteristics of mixed methods designs
Rationale for the design

Collecting quantitative and qualitative data



Data analysis matched to design

Diagram of the procedures

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs
key characteristics of mixed methods designs rationale

Test findings of first phase

Explain results of first phase in more detail

Provide a more complete understanding than either quantitative or qualitative alone

Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data

Numeric data

Text data

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Rationale
key characteristics of mixed methods designs priority and sequence

Equal weight

QUAN carries more weight than qual

QUAL carries more weight than quan


Collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time

Collect quantitative data first, followed by qualitative data

Collect qualitative data first, followed by quantitative data

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Priority and Sequence
key characteristics of mixed methods designs analysis and diagram
Analysis matched to design (“mixing”)

Data analysis strategies for triangulation design

Data analysis strategies for exploratory design

Data analysis strategies for explanatory design

Diagram of procedures

Use notation system

Identify priority

Identify sequence

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Analysis and Diagram
examples of visual diagrams
Examples of Visual Diagrams

I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design


(Data and



(Data and Results)



II. Embedded Mixed Methods Design


Data and Results


(Data and Results)


examples of visual diagrams cont d
Examples of Visual Diagrams (cont’d)

III. Explanatory Mixed Methods Design


(Data and



(Data and Results)


IV. Exploratory Mixed Methods Design


(Data and



(Data and



steps for conducting a mixed methods study
Steps for Conducting a Mixed Methods Study

Develop quantitative

and qualitative research


Collect quantitative

and qualitative data

Step 4

Step 5

Identify the data

collection strategy and

type of design




Step 3

Analyze data

separately or


Step 6

Identify a rationale

for a mixed methods


Determine if a mixed

methods study is


Write the report as a

one- or two-phase


Step 2

Step 1

Step 7

choosing whether to use a quantitative or qualitative approach
Match the approach to the problem

Fit the approach to your audience

Relate the approach to your experiences

Choosing Whether to Use a Quantitative or Qualitative Approach