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EDU 5900 KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN. Kaedah Penyelidikan Quasi- Eksperimen dan ex-post facto. Menerangkan konsep, tujuan dan kepentingan kaedah penyelidikan Quasi-Eksperimen dan ex-post facto. Menilai kesesuaian penggunaan kaedah tersebut bagi permasalahan kajian yang dikemukakan.

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objektif
Menerangkan konsep, tujuan dan kepentingan kaedah penyelidikan Quasi-Eksperimen dan ex-post facto.

Menilai kesesuaian penggunaan kaedah tersebut bagi permasalahan kajian yang dikemukakan.

Merancang langkah-langkah pelaksanaan kajian mengikut kaedah tertentu.

OBJEKTIF
slide4
Rekabentuk Quasi-EksperimenThe word "quasi" means as if or almost, so a quasi-experiment means almost a true experiment.
kenapa quasi eksperimen
Dinamakan Quasi-Eksperimental kerana penyelidikan yang dilakukan hampir menyerupai reka bentuk eksperimen, kecuali tiada pembahagian secara rawak dilakukan.

Pembahagian rawak sukar dijalankan dalam keadaan tertentu seperti pemboleh ubah atribut (jantina, ras, pendapatan penjaga dll) kerana akan menjejaskan pemboleh ubah seperti rasa terasing dalam kumpulan baru dan sebagainya. Oleh itu reka bentuk ini digunakan.

Kaedah reka bentuk quasi-eksperimen bukan sebenar-benar eksperimen kerana tiada pembahagian rawak dilakukan.

Gunakan kumpulan sedia wujud dalam (intact group).

Kenapa Quasi-Eksperimen?
quasi experimental designs
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS;

are usually constructions that already exist in the real world. Those designs that fall into the quasi-experimental category fall short in some way of the criteria for the true experimental group. A quasi-experimental design will have some sort of control and experimental group, but these groups probably weren't randomly selected. Random selection is usually where true-experimental and quasi-experimental designs differ.

QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
  • Some advantages of the quasi-experimental design include:
  • Greater external validity (more like real world conditions)
  • Much more feasible given time and logistical constraints
  • Disadvantages:
  • Not as many variables controlled (less causal claims)
ciri ciri rekabentuk quasi eksperimen
Dua atau lebih daripada kumpulan responden yang tidak diagih secara rawak.

Memerlukan kawalan terhadap pemboleh ubah luaran yang tegas.

Mengutamakan perbezaan antara kumpulan responden secara semula jadi.

Ciri-Ciri Rekabentuk Quasi-Eksperimen
slide8

Perbezaan antara eksperimen dengan quasi-eksperimen.

True and Quasi-Experimental Designs.

Aktiviti bacaan: Sila baca artikel yang bertajuk;

EXPERIMENTAL AND QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

slide10
Ex post facto

The Latin term "Ex post facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by reason of a subsequent act".

causal comparative studies
Go beyond relationships/associations to examine cause-and-effects.

Two types of these studies:

Ex Post Facto

Correlational

Causal-Comparative Studies

13

ex post facto

Ex post facto

The Latin term "Ex post facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by reason of a subsequent act".

Ex post facto

‘from what is done afterwards’

Ex-post-facto designs ("after the fact")

slide13

Definisi:

Kaedah ini digunakan untuk mengenal pasti punca atau penyebab (IV) sesuatu kesan (DV) yang diperhati dimana IV adalah sesuatu yang telah berlaku dan tidak boleh dimanipulasikan(diluar kawalan penyelidik.

Casual Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another.

Lihat contoh dalam Noraini Idris (2010), ms. 230

causal comparative studies1
Important Issues:

Primary purpose should be developing cause-and-effect relationships when experimentation is not possible

The “intervention” (IV) must have already occurred

Must identify and consider extraneous variables

Differences between the groups not due to the independent variable should be controlled

Be careful with causal conclusions

Causal-Comparative Studies

17

slide15
Reka bentuk ini menekankan sebab yang dijangka.

Contoh 1: Adakah program pendidikan pemulihan meningkatkan prestasi 3M murid-murid yang lemah?

Contoh 2: Adakah program kaunseling individu meningkatkan motivasi murid bermasalah?

Tafsiran sebab-akibat (cause-effect relationship)

Penyelidik perlu memastikan:

Terdapat hubungan antara A (IV) dan B (DV);

A datang dahulu daripada B;

Tidak ada kesan pemboleh ubah luaran terhadap A, B atau interaksi A dan B.

slide16

Tiga Jenis Bukti Yang Perlu

Untuk Mengesahkan Hubungan Sebab-akibat

Perhubungan statistik yang signifikan antara pemboleh ubah bebas dan bersandar wujud dengan sah.

Pemboleh ubah bebas wujud sebelum pemboleh ubah bersandar.

Pemboleh ubah lain tidak mempengaruhi pemboleh ubah bersandar.

slide17

Two Basic Approaches to Ex Post Facto Research

Begin with subjects who differ on an independent variable (such as their principal instrument/voice) and study how they differ on dependent variables (such as levels of performance anxiety or music theory test scores).

Begin with subjects who differ on a dependent variable (such as attrition from music--comparing those students who drop out of music with those who persist) and study how they differ on various independent variables (such as how much they practice, how they feel about their relationship with their teacher, how they feel about themselves as musicians, etc.).

slide18

This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-world situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact."

For example, it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study, specific reasons for the differences would be explored, such as differences in income, ethnicity, parent support, etc.

slide19
Studies that investigate possible cause and effect relationships by observing an existing condition or state of affairs and searching back in time for plausible causal factors.

The ex post facto design is a variation of the "after-only with control group" experimental design.

The chief difference is that both the experimental and control groups are selected after the experimental variable is introduced rather than before.

Explores possible causes and effects.

The independent variable is not manipulated, it has already been applied.

Focuses first on the effect, then attempts to determine what caused the observed effect.

characteristics of ex post facto
Researcher takes the effect/dependent variable and examines it retrospectively

Establishes causes, relationships or associations and their meanings.

Researcher has little to no control over independent variables.

Flexible by nature.

There is a control or comparison group.

Intact groups are used.

The treatment is not manipulated, it has already occurred.

There may be both “treatment” and “control” groups, however these will be existing, not assigned by the researcher.

There is no manipulation of conditions

Characteristics of Ex Post Facto
ex post facto research
Researcher cannot manipulate some variables and therefor selects participants that have certain values for those variables by themselves (gender, personality, illness, ...)Ex Post Facto research
slide22

The experimenter does not manipulate the IV... that is subjects cannot be randomly assigned to the levels of the IV - rather they assign themselves because the IV is not manipulated, it also qualifies as a descriptive technique

when to use this
You can use this where more powerful experimental designs are not possible; when you are unable to select, control and manipulate the factors necessary to study cause and effect relationships directly, or when control variables except a single independent variable may be unrealistic and artificial.When to use this?
ex post facto advantages and disadvantages
Advantages

Show a correlation where more rigorous experimentation is not possible

Exploratory tool

Useful to avoid articiality in the research.

Shows cause and effect relationships

Disadvantages

Lack of control for independent variable and randomizing subjects.

Never certain if causative factor has been included or identified

Relationship between two factors does not est. cause and effect.

May be regarded as too flexible.

Ex post facto advantages and disadvantages
slide25

Melibatkan perbandingan antara kumpulan yang sedia wujud

  • Contoh: Menyelidik murid-murid yang menonton rancangan belajar bahasa Inggeris melalui siaran TV dan membandingkan prestasi mereka untuk mengkaji sama ada menonton program bahasa Inggeris di TV dapat membantu meningkatkan pencapaian mata pelajaran tersebut. Murid-murid dikumpulkan dalam beberapa kumpulan mengikut banyaknya mereka menonton siaran tersebut.
slide26

Examples of Ex Post Facto Studies

  • What is the effect of day care on the social skills of children?
  • What is the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and self concept?
  • "smoking causes cancer”
ex post facto example
Ex Post Facto - example

Depression in rape victims

research design
Research design

X1 = rape victim

X2 = control

Yij = average depression score in group i, at time j

---- indicates possible unequality of groups in both conditions

slide29

Tips…

  • Kajian perbandingan sebab perlu digunakan apabila kajian eksperimen tidak dapat dilakukan.
  • Keadaan sebab mesti berlaku sebelumnya.
  • Pemboleh ubah ekstranous perlu dikenal pasti dan dicatat.
  • Perbezaan antara kumpulan perlu dikawal.
  • Hubungan sebab-akibat perlu dinyatakan dengan berhati-hati!

Baca Noraini Idris (2010), ms. 235 (Jadual 12.1)

what is mixed methods research
A mixed methods research design is a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and “mixing” both quantitative and qualitative research and methods in a single study to understand a research problem. What Is Mixed Methods Research?
combined designs and uses
Combined Designs and Uses

Using quantitative and qualitative data for individuals to study problems that they face in their setting

Combining quantitative and

qualitative data to understand and explain a research problem better.

Mixed Methods

Research

Action

Research

when to use mixed methods designs
When both quantitative and qualitative data, together, provide a better understanding of your research problem than either type by itself

When one type of research (qualitative or quantitative) is not enough to address the research problem or answer the research questions.

To incorporate a qualitative component into an otherwise quantitative study

To build from one phase of a study to another

Explore qualitatively then develop an instrument

Follow-up a quantitative study qualitatively to obtain more detailed information

When to Use Mixed Methods Designs
identifying a mixed methods study in the literature
The title includes words such as “mixed methods” or “multimethod,” etc.

Data collection section indicates both qualitative and quantitative data were collected.

Purpose statement and/or research questions indicate that the researcher intends to collect both quantitative and qualitative data during the study.

Priority or weight: Qualitative, quantitative, or both equally

Sequence of collecting quantitative and qualitative data is indicated

Analyze both data sets

Combined in one analysis (integrated)

Separate analysis

Identifying a Mixed Methods Study in the Literature
a notation system for designs
A Notation System for Designs

Study #1 QUAL + QUAN

+indicates the simultaneous or concurrent collection

of quantitative and qualitative data

Study #2 QUAN qual

Shows sequential collection of

quantitative and qualitative data

NOTATION USED

Uppercase letters indicate a priority or increased

weight for quantitative and/or qualitative data.

Lowercase letters indicate a lower priority or weight

for either quantitative and/or qualitative data.

types of mixed methods designs
Types of Mixed Methods Designs

I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design

+

QUAN

Data and Results

QUAL

Data and Results

Interpretation

II. Explanatory Mixed Methods Design

QUAN

Data and Results

qual

Data and Results

Follow-up

III. Exploratory Mixed Methods Design

QUAL

Data and Results

quan

Data and Results

Building

mixed methods designs explanatory design
Researcher places priority on quantitative (QUAN) data collection and analysis.

Researcher collects quantitative data first in the sequence.

Researcher uses the qualitative data to explain the results of the quantitative data.

Mixed Methods Designs: Explanatory Design
mixed methods designs exploratory design
Research emphasizes qualitative (QUAL) data rather than quantitative (quan) data.

Researcher has a sequence of data collection that involves collecting qualitative data followed by quantitative data.

Researcher plans on the quantitative data to build on or explain the initial qualitative findings.

Mixed Methods Designs: Exploratory Design
key characteristics of mixed methods designs
Rationale for the design

Collecting quantitative and qualitative data

Priority

Sequence

Data analysis matched to design

Diagram of the procedures

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs
key characteristics of mixed methods designs rationale
Rationale

Test findings of first phase

Explain results of first phase in more detail

Provide a more complete understanding than either quantitative or qualitative alone

Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data

Numeric data

Text data

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Rationale
key characteristics of mixed methods designs priority and sequence
Priority

Equal weight

QUAN carries more weight than qual

QUAL carries more weight than quan

Sequence

Collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time

Collect quantitative data first, followed by qualitative data

Collect qualitative data first, followed by quantitative data

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Priority and Sequence
key characteristics of mixed methods designs analysis and diagram
Analysis matched to design (“mixing”)

Data analysis strategies for triangulation design

Data analysis strategies for exploratory design

Data analysis strategies for explanatory design

Diagram of procedures

Use notation system

Identify priority

Identify sequence

Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Analysis and Diagram
examples of visual diagrams
Examples of Visual Diagrams

I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design

QUAL

(Data and

Results)

QUAN

(Data and Results)

+

Interpretation

II. Embedded Mixed Methods Design

QUAN

Data and Results

QUAN

(Data and Results)

Interpretation

examples of visual diagrams cont d
Examples of Visual Diagrams (cont’d)

III. Explanatory Mixed Methods Design

QUAN

(Data and

Results)

qual

(Data and Results)

Follow-up

IV. Exploratory Mixed Methods Design

QUAL

(Data and

Results)

quan

(Data and

Results)

Building

steps for conducting a mixed methods study
Steps for Conducting a Mixed Methods Study

Develop quantitative

and qualitative research

questions

Collect quantitative

and qualitative data

Step 4

Step 5

Identify the data

collection strategy and

type of design

Priority

Sequence

Visualization

Step 3

Analyze data

separately or

concurrently

Step 6

Identify a rationale

for a mixed methods

study

Determine if a mixed

methods study is

feasible

Write the report as a

one- or two-phase

study

Step 2

Step 1

Step 7

choosing whether to use a quantitative or qualitative approach
Match the approach to the problem

Fit the approach to your audience

Relate the approach to your experiences

Choosing Whether to Use a Quantitative or Qualitative Approach