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Food additives growth promoters: improve the production traits of healthy animals • Antibiotics: produces by other microorganisms, fungi that protect the growth of bacteria • reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella sp., etc.), prevent the infection of the digestive tract, • increase the absorptive capacity of the small intestine (decrease the thickness of the intestinal wall) • reduce the competition of bacteria with the host (bacteria ferment the nutrients before digestion) • they have been used mainly in pig and poultry nutrition • their widespread use could cause the ability of certain strains to be resistant to many antibiotics • therefore in the EU the use of antibiotic growth promoters has been restrictedsince 2000
Probiotics: live microbial food supplement • containing mostly lactic acid producing bacteria • by reducing the pH in the intestine, reducing the numbers of harmful bacteria (competitive exclusion) • enhance immune competence • are heat sensitive (pelleting)
Prebiotics: oligosaccharides (2-20 monosacharides) that modify the balance of the microfloral population by promoting the growth of the beneficial bacteria • can be fermented by the favourable bacteria • decreasing the attachment of harmful bacteria with the gut wall • galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (legume seeds) • fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (cereal grains) • mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) (yeast cell walls) • Symbiotics: contain both probiotics and prebiotics • Organic acids: (lactic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, propionic acid etc.) • stabilise the intestinal microflora by decreasing the pH • can be effective in early weaned, young animals • incorporated into the diet (6-25 g/kg) or into the drinking water
Enzymes: • as a result of advances in biotechnology, more effective enzyme preparations can be produced relatively inexpensively • supplement the insufficient enzyme secretion of young animals (amylase, protease, lipase etc.) • can improve the availability of plant storage polysaccharides (starch, oils and proteins) by degrading the cell wall content like cellulose by the enzyme cellulase (5-10% improvement can be achieved in poultry and pig trials) • destroy ant-nutritive materials that interfere with the digestion and utilisation of nutrients (glucanase, xylanase destroy cereal cell wall compounds, β-glucans and arabinoxylans) • phytase releases phosphorous and other minerals from phytic acid in cereals and oilseeds (greater availability of minerals, less need for inorganic phosphorous, beneficial effect on the environment) • Flavory materials: (sugars, vanilla, canella etc.) • increase the feed intake • can be effective mostly in young intensively growing animals • their effect depends on the flavour sensation of different animal species
Effect of -glucanase enzyme supplementation on the growth of broiler chicks control enzyme wheat content of the diet
Plant extracts, essential plant oils: (sage, peppermint, garlic, thyme etc.) • can be used for the partial replacement of antibiotics • complex effects (flavour materials, antimicrobial compounds, antioxidants etc.) • the products in the practice are mostly the mixture of different plant extracts and oils • their market share is increasing in Europe • b., other food additives • NPN materials: (urea, ammoniumsalts) • can be used in ruminant animal nutrition • mostly in low milk producing cows, beef cattle • they are strict rules for using them • Toxin binders: used for binding mycotoxins (zearalenon (F2); T2 toxin; ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins, aflatoxin etc.), decrease their absorption • aluminium silicates (bentonit) • glucomannans (yeast cell wall extracts) • they efficiency is toxin dependent • bind also some minerals and nutrients
crystallinene amino acids: • L – lysine • DL – methionine • in the near future threonine, tryptophan and arginine will also be available in the feed industry • for ruminants must be fed in by pass form (covering by fatty acids, protecting against the bacterial degradation) • can be optimise the amino acid composition of food proteins • can be decreased the protein content of diets • the price of compound feeds can be cheaper • decrease the N-excretion • colour materials: carotenoids (zeaxanthin, lutein, licophin, capsanthin etc.) • egg yolk • skin, the fat below the skin • using is synthetic colour compounds is limited in the EU • antioxidants: protecting vitamins and fatty acids from the oxidation • synthetic antioxidants • etoxi-methil-quinolin (EMQ) • butil-hidroxi-toluol (BHT) • natural antioxidants (vit. E, vit. C, carotenes etc.) • they need depends on the fat and unsaturated fatty acid content of the diet.
Investigation the in vitro binding efficiency of different toxin adsorbents on mycotoxins and microelements OBJECTIVES The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro binding efficiency of some toxin binders for different mycotoxins and microelements METHODS Five different commercial adsorbents (Zeolit, Toxy-Nil, Redutox, Mycofix 3.E and Mycosorb) were tested in 4 replicates for ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZON), T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON). Besides testing the toxin binding efficiency, the effect of adsorbents on the iron, copper, manganese and zinc was also determined. The in vitro model employed simulated the in vivo conditions (pH, transit time) of the poultry gastrointestinal tract. The amounts of adsorbents, purified toxins and microelements were determined according to their practical occurrence or recommendations.
CONCLUSIONS • The binding efficiency of the investigated adsorbents was toxin dependent. The highest values were found for ZON (57-69%), while the lowest for DON (25-30%). The highest difference among adsorbents was found in the case of OTA (27-42%). Binding affinity for T-2 toxin ranged between 27 and 37%. • Zeolite bound zinc at 11%, the other 3 microelements in a significant higher ratio (34-44%). The other adsorbents showed lower, but still significant affinity for the microelements 12,5-16,5% for cupper, 5-17% for zinc, 6-14% for iron and 6,5-22,7% for manganese. • From the results it can be concluded, that the efficacy of toxin binders used in this experiment is only limited for ZON, DON, OTA and T-2 toxin and they can bind beside mycotoxins also significant amount of micro nutrients. Further in vitro and in vivo studies needed to determine the toxin binder specific mineral and vitamin supplementations of poultry diets, if these types of feed additives are used.