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Announcement About HW-2. Deadline Extended – 11:55 PM Thursday 5% Extra Credit if you meet the original deadline See the e-mail from the TAs for the details. 1.5 Input and Output. Input devices. Output devices. Goal. Java programs that interact with the outside world.

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announcement about hw 2
Announcement About HW-2
  • Deadline Extended – 11:55 PM Thursday
  • 5% Extra Credit if you meet the original deadline
  • See the e-mail from the TAs for the details
input and output i o
Input devices.

Output devices.

Goal. Java programs that interact with the outside world.

Input and Output (I/O)

Hard drive

Network

Digital camera

Microphone

Keyboard

Mouse

Display

Network

Hard drive

Speakers

MP3 Player

Printer

i o hardware software architecture
I/O Hardware/Software Architecture

Application Software

Operating System (Kernel)

input and output in java
Input devices.

Output devices.

Our approach.

Define Java libraries of functions for input and output.

Use operating system (OS) to connect Java programs to:file system, each other, keyboard, mouse, display, speakers.

Programs can manipulate arbitrary amounts of data.

Input and Output in Java

Hard drive

Network

Digital camera

Microphone

Keyboard

Mouse

Display

Network

Hard drive

Speakers

MP3 Player

Printer

search engines
Search Engines
  • 1 trillion webpages
  • Perform same/similar processing over all the data

The World Wide Web in 2003.

Image source: http://www.opte.org/

command line input vs standard input
Command-line Input vs. Standard Input

Command line inputs.

  • Use command line inputs to read in a few user values.
  • Not practical for many user inputs.
  • Input entered before program begins execution.

Standard input (stdin.java)

  • Flexible OS abstraction for input.
  • By default, stdin is received from Terminal window.
  • Input entered while program is executing.
reading data from a file

Reading Data from a File

Can use the same interface to read a file

(Interface here means same methods.)

Issues:

Need to “connect to” or “open” the data file.

There’s just one standard input, but we could read from multiple files.

princeton i o libraries stdlib jar dr java demo

Princeton I/O Libraries – stdlib.jarDr. Java Demo

Java’s standard libraries (e.g. Math, System, etc.)

Automatically included when you build a Java program

Other libraries (your’s, our’s, Princeton’s):

  • You must add them to your project, folder, etc. using your IDE.
  • These can be in source files, e.g. StdIn.java
  • Or, in an archive file called a Jar file

We provide a Jar file with all the Princeton libraries: stdlib.jar

In DrJava: from Preference menu, choose Resource Locations

Then click Add by Extra Classpath and find and select stdlib.jar

reading file data using the in library
Reading File Data using the ‘In’ Library

In: Princeton provided library for reading file data.

Use In in a very similar way to StdIn -- but you must:

    • declare a new In object and create it by opening a file.
    • use your new In object by name instead of StdIn.

In fileIn = new In(“mydatafile.txt”);

double[] data = new double[100];

int i = 0;

while ( ! fileIn.isEmpty() ) data[i++] = fileIn.readDouble();

  • This opens a file for reading. Looks for mydatafile.txt in the current working directory where your program is running.
  • Then reads double after double into the array. Stops when there are no more values in the file to be read.

DR. JAVA CODE EXAMPLE – readFile.java

standard drawing

Standard Drawing

StdDraw.java

(Part of stdlib.jar)

data visualization
Data Visualization

Plot filter. Read in a sequence of (x, y) coordinates from standard input, and plot using standard drawing.

bounding box

669905.0 247205.0 1244962.0 490000.0

1097038.8890 245552.7780

1103961.1110 247133.3330

1104677.7780 247205.5560

...

coordinates of13,509 US cities

usa.txt

plot filter dr java demo
Plot FilterDr. Java Demo

669905.0 247205.0 1244962.0 490000.0

1097038.8890 245552.7780

1103961.1110 247133.3330

...

usa.txt

public class PlotFilter {

public static void main(String[] args) {

In fileIn = new In("USA.txt");

double xmin = fileIn.readDouble();

double ymin = fileIn.readDouble();

double xmax = fileIn.readDouble();

double ymax = fileIn.readDouble();

StdDraw.setXscale(xmin, xmax);

StdDraw.setYscale(ymin, ymax);

while (!fileIn.isEmpty()) {

double x = fileIn.readDouble();

double y = fileIn.readDouble();

StdDraw.point(x, y);

}

}

}

Change Coordinates from (0,0), (1,1)

square

animation
Animation

Animation loop. Repeat the following:

  • Clear the screen.
  • Move the object.
  • Draw the object.
  • Display and pause for a short while.

Ex. Bouncing ball.

  • Ball has position (rx, ry) and constant velocity (vx, vy).
  • Detect collision with wall and reverse velocity.

(+1, +1)

(vx, vy)

(rx, ry)

Wall

(-1, -1)

bouncing ball
Bouncing Ball

publicclass BouncingBall {

publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) {

double rx =.480, ry =.860;

double vx = .015, vy =.023;

double radius = .05;

StdDraw.setXscale(-1.0, +1.0);

StdDraw.setYscale(-1.0, +1.0);

while(true) {

if(Math.abs(rx + vx)>1.0) vx =-vx;

if(Math.abs(ry + vy)>1.0) vy =-vy;

rx = rx + vx;

ry = ry + vy;

StdDraw.clear(StdDraw.WHITE);

StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.BLACK);

StdDraw.filledCircle(rx, ry, radius);

StdDraw.show(50);

}

}

}

position

constant velocity

radius

establish “walls”

bounce

update position

clear background

draw the ball

turn on animation mode:display and pause for 50ms

special effects
Special Effects

Images. Put .gif, .png, or .jpg file in the working directory anduse StdDraw.picture() to draw it.

Sound effects. Put .wav, .mid, or .au file in the working directory and use StdAudio.play() to play it.

Ex. Modify BouncingBall to display image and play sound upon collision.

  • Replace StdDraw.filledCircle() with:
  • Add following code upon collision with wall:

StdDraw.picture(rx, ry, "earth.gif");

StdAudio.play("boing.wav");

computer animation

2

10

3

11

4

12

13

5

14

1

6

15

7

16

17

8

9

Computer Animation

Computer animation. Display a sequenceof closely related images in rapid successionto produce the illusion of movement.

Frame rate. Use 15-70 frames per secondto "trick" human eye and brain into seeingsmooth motion.

Ex 1. Television and motion pictures.

Ex 2. Java mascot Duke cart-wheeling.

http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial

java implementation
Java Implementation

public class Duke {

public static void main(String[] args) {

int images = 17;

int WIDTH = 130, HEIGHT = 80;

StdDraw.setCanvasSize(WIDTH, HEIGHT);

for (int t = 0; true; t++) {

int i = 1 + (t % images);

String file = "T" + i + ".gif";

StdDraw.picture(0.5, 0.5, file);

StdDraw.show(100);

}

}

}

T1.gif - T17.gif

chaos game
Chaos Game

Chaos game. Play on equilateral triangle, with vertices R, G, B.

  • Start at R.
  • Repeat the following N times:
    • pick a random vertex
    • move halfway between current point and vertex
    • draw a point in color of vertex

Q. What picture emerges?

B: (½, ½3)

2

B B G R B G …

5

1

3

6

4

0

G: (1, 0)

R: (0, 0)

chaos game1
Chaos Game

public class Chaos {

public static void main(String[] args) {

int T = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);

double[] cx = { 0.000, 1.000, 0.500 };

double[] cy = { 0.000, 0.000, 0.866 };

double x = 0.0, y = 0.0;

for (int t = 0; t < T; t++) {

int r = (int) (Math.random() * 3);

x = (x + cx[r]) / 2.0;

y = (y + cy[r]) / 2.0;

StdDraw.point(x, y);

}

}

}

½3(avoid hardwiredconstants like this)

between 0 and 2

chaos game2
Chaos Game

Easy modification. Color point according to random vertex chosen using StdDraw.setPenColor(StdDraw.RED) to change the pen color.

B

% java Chaos 10000

R

G

Sierpinski triangle

barnsley fern
Barnsley Fern

Barnsley fern. Play chaos game with different rules.

Q. What does computation tell us about nature?

Q. What does nature tell us about computation?

20th century sciences. Formulas.

21st century sciences. Algorithms?

probability

new x

new y

2%

.50

.27y

15%

-.14x + .26y + .57

.25x + .22y - .04

13%

.17x - .21y + .41

.22x + .18y + .09

70%

.78x + .03y + .11

-.03x + .74y + .27