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Warm up. D raw the Lewis structure for ozone, O 3 . What does the word hybridization mean? Use your own words. Warm up. Warm up. Resonance. A resonance structure is a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Warm up

  • Draw the Lewis structure for ozone, O3.
  • What does the word hybridization mean? Use your own words.
slide4

Resonance

A resonance structure is a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures.

In the case of ozone, neither structure actually exists, but rather the actual bonding is an average of the two structures.

slide8

Warm up

Definition of hybridization ….

slide9

Hybridization

  • Learn what a sigma bond looks like
  • Learn what a pi bond looks like
  • -Understand the concept of orbital hybridization and how it changes the bonding in an atom such as carbon
slide10

Sigma Bond

When two atomic orbitals combine to form a bond along the axis between two atoms … we call it a sigma bond (s)

slide12

Pi Bond

When two “p” orbitals combine side by side we say they overlap to form a pi (P) bond

Pi bonds exist when we have double and triple bonds

slide14

What does this all mean?

Single bond – 1 sigma bond

Double bond – 1 sigma and 1 pi bond

Triple bond – 1 sigma and 2 pi bonds

slide15

The electron structure of a carbon atom can be written as:

Based on this model, we would predict that carbon atoms should form two covalent bonds??!!

slide17

Hybridized Carbon Aufbau Diagram

Regular Carbon Aufbau Diagram

hybridization

1 s + 3 p = 4 sp3

(All 4 orbitals are now equal at the 2nd energy level)

slide18

Electrons must be distributed among the new orbitals. Since these hybrid orbitals are equal in energy, the electrons must distributed according to Hund’s Rule.

4 sp 3 orbitals bond with 4 hydrogen atoms methane
4 sp3 orbitals bond with4 hydrogen atoms - methane

Overlap here

is known as

sigma bond

sp3 carbon

sp hybridization carbon triple bond acetylene1
sp hybridizationcarbon triple bond - acetylene

234-236 in your text

discusses these examples

summary
Summary

sp3 hybridization involves single-bonded carbon

sp2 hybridization involves double-bonded carbon

sphybridization involves triple-bonded carbon