Midterm I Review. The most common atmospheric circulation structure. H. L. Cooling or No Heating. Heating. H. L. Imbalance of heating Imbalance of temperature Imbalance of pressure W ind. Topics we have discussed. Overviews I: Extreme weather and climate
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or No Heating
Global atmospheric flow
Problem II: Different components of the earth system (atmosphere, land, ocean, ice, clouds, etc) are strongly interacting with each other (The “Feedback Problem”)
Problem III (atmosphere, land, ocean, ice, clouds, etc) are strongly interacting with each other : The global climate models divide the earth into many small pixels (called grids), but the earth system composes of both very big objects (such as the whole Pacific Ocean) and very small objects (such as the cloud droplets), making it very difficult to draw them on the same page (The “Subgrid-Scale Problem”)
1st: 4.6 billion years ago, H, He
Transition: formation of magnetic field, volcano activities
2nd: 4 billion years ago, CO2, H2O, N2
Transition: emergence of life, formation of ocean
3rd: 400 million years ago, O2
Important event: formation of seven continents
Quantity Name Units Symbol
Length meter m m
Mass kilogram kg kg
Time second s s
Temperature Kelvin K K
Density kilogram kg/m3 kg/m3
per cubic meter
Speed meter per m/s m/s
Force newton m.kg/s2 N
Pressure pascal N/m2 Pa
Energy joule N.m J
Power watt J/s W
The Earth was born 4.6 billion years ago.
IPCC (2001) (atmosphere, land, ocean, ice, clouds, etc) are strongly interacting with each otherImportance of the Variable Gases
Change of CO2
Montreal Protocol in 1987 to ban freons
Change of O3
(0.4-0.7 μm) Peak 0.5 μm (green)
The limitations of the human eye!
(4-100 μm) Peak 10 μm (infrared)
The Earth’s two basic motions: revolution with a period of 1 year, and rotation with a period of 1 day.The change of seasons is caused by the Earth’s 23.5o tilt from the line perpendicular to its orbit plane (toward the sun during summer), which affects the receipt of solar insolation in three ways:
Incoming shortwave = Reflected Shortwave+ Emitted longwave
Incoming shortwave = Reflected shortwave + Net emitted longwave (emitted - incoming)
+ Latent heat flux + sensible heat flux
Net Longwave 21%
Sensible heat 7%
Latent heat 23%
Transparent to solar (shortwave) radiation
Opaque to earth’s (longwave) radiation
Major GH gases: CO2, H20(v), CH4
The greenhouse effect helps to keep the earth surface at a comfortable temperature. But when it’s too strong, the temperature becomes too warm.
The names of the 4 layers
What separate them?
The approximate height of tropopause, stratopause and mesopause
Becausedownward gravity force is balanced by vertical pressure gradient force (called hydrostatic equilibrium)
Δp/Δz = ρg
Forces affecting the horizontal winds (atmosphere, land, ocean, ice, clouds, etc) are strongly interacting with each other
Cyclones, Anticyclones, Troughs and Ridges (atmosphere, land, ocean, ice, clouds, etc) are strongly interacting with each other
Upper air: isobars usually not closed off
Near surface: isobars usually closed off due to surface friction
Ocean surface currents (atmosphere, land, ocean, ice, clouds, etc) are strongly interacting with each other – horizontal water motions
Transfer energy and influence overlying atmosphere
Surface currents result from frictional drag caused by wind - Ekman SpiralGeneral circulation of the oceans
A) yard, B) meter, C) gram, D) pound.
2) Which of the following is NOT a variable gas?
A) water vapor. B) nitrogen. C) carbon dioxide. D) ozone.
A) the west. B) the north. C) the southeast. D) the northwest.
A) are associated with low-pressure systems in the northern hemisphere.
B) experience Coriolis effects that deflect air to the left in the Northern Hemisphere.
C) are associated with supersonic winds.
D) are associated with counter-clockwise flow in the southern hemisphere.