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Review for Final Exam. Materials Covered - I . All Articles on reading List: Brancheau, et al. (1996) "Key Issues in Information Systems Management: 1994-95 SIM Delphi Results", MIS Quarterly , Vol. 20, Number 2, June 1996.

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slide1

Review

for

Final Exam

materials covered i
Materials Covered - I
  • All Articles on reading List:
  • Brancheau, et al. (1996) "Key Issues in Information Systems Management: 1994-95 SIM Delphi Results", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 20, Number 2, June 1996.
  • Goodwin, Nancy C. (1987), "Functionality and Usability," Communications of the ACM , March 1987, 229-233.
  • Gorry and Scott Morton, (1989) "A Framework for Management Information Systems", Sloan Management Review, Spring 1989. (A reprint of the classic article first published in 1971).
  • Grudin, (1994) "GroupWare and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 37, Number 1, January 1994.
  • Van den Hoven, John (1996) "Executive Support Systems & Decision Making" Journal of Systems Management, March/April 1996. 48-55.
  • Wetherbe, (1991) "Executive Information Requirements: Getting It Right", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 15, Number 1, March, 1991.
materials covered ii
Materials Covered - II
  • Lectures/Chapters Since Exam II
    • Evaluating Information systems
    • Determining Executive Information Requirements
    • Alter, Chapter 12 - Much of this is covered in lecture (but not all!).
  • Work-Centered Analysis
    • Alter - Chapter 2
  • Differences Between Information Systems
    • Chapter 5
materials covered iii
Materials Covered - III
  • Any question or concept I asked on the first two exams is fair game for the final exam. Please note that I may ask the question in a different context.
  • I will not cover a topic on the final that I have not covered here.
  • Please realize that if I cover a concept here in the review, it would be a good idea to review any previous discussion of it (e.g. lecture notes, text book).
suggested study approach
Suggested Study Approach
  • In Groups review all articles. Try to formulate 3 or 4 questions on the primary points of each article.
  • Review previous exams. Make sure you understand the concepts being asked, and not just memorizing answers or terms.
  • Review WCA concepts. (Alter Chapter 2)
  • Last two slide series and Chapter 12.
gorry and scott morton framework
Gorry and Scott Morton Framework

Robert Anthony

Herbert Simon

building and maintaining information systems
Building and Maintaining Information systems
  • What are the phases in building and maintaining information systems?
it based innovation
IT-Based Innovation
  • What are some of the areas in which IT-based innovations have affected the following functional areas of business?
it based innovation1
IT-Based Innovation
  • What are some of the areas in which IT-based innovations have affected the following functional areas of business?
    • Product design systems
    • procurement systems
    • manufacturing systems
    • sales and marketing systems
    • delivery systems
    • customer service systems
    • finance systems
technology trends
Technology Trends
  • How technology trends enabled IT-based innovation in business?
technology trends1
Technology Trends
  • How technology trends enabled IT-based innovation in business?
    • Greater miniaturization, speed and portability
    • greater connectivity and continuing convergence of computing and communications
    • greater use of digitized information and multimedia
    • better software techniques and interfaces with people.
obstacles to it based innovation
Obstacles to IT-Based Innovation
  • What obstacles to real world limitations have slowed the pace of implementation for IT-based innovations?
obstacles to it based innovation1
Obstacles to IT-Based Innovation
  • What obstacles to real world limitations have slowed the pace of implementation for IT-based innovations?
    • Unrealistic expectations and techno-hype
    • difficulty building and maintaining information systems.
    • Difficulty integrating IT-based systems.
    • Organizational inertia, resistance and problems with change
    • genuine difficulty anticipating what will happen
work systems
Work Systems
  • What six elements can be used to summarize any work system?
work systems2
Work Systems
  • What is the relationship between information systems and work systems?
work systems4
Work Systems
  • What five perspectives can be used for thinking about work systems?
five perspectives for understanding a work system
Five Perspectives for Understanding a Work System
  • ARCHITECTURE
  • What are the components of the system that performs the work and who uses the work product?
  • How are the components linked?
  • How do the components operate together?
  • PERFORMANCE
  • How well do the components operate individually?
  • How well does the system operate? (How well is the work performed?)
  • How well should the system operate?
  • INFRASTRUCTURE
  • What technical and human infrastructure does the work rely on?
  • In what ways does infrastructure present opportunities or obstacles?
  • CONTEXT
  • What are the impacts of the organizational and technical context?
  • In what ways does the context present opportunities or obstacles?
  • RISKS
  • What foreseeable things can prevent the work from happening,
  • can make the work inefficient, or can cause defects in the work product?
  • What are the likely responses to these problems?
work systems5
Work Systems
  • What is the relationship between process architecture, process performance, and product performance?
work systems6
Work Systems
  • What is the relationship between process architecture, process performance, and product performance?
    • Improvements in a work system are usually related to the links between the architecture and the performance perspectives.
    • Customer satisfaction is largely determined by product performance.
    • Product performance is determined by a combination of product architecture and the internal work system performance
systems analysis
Systems Analysis
  • What are the steps in systems analysis and how can business professionals apply these steps?
the 10 issues in the work centered analysis method
The 10 Issues in the Work-Centered Analysis Method

Systems analysis step

1. Define the problem

2. Describe the current work system in enough depth

and

3. Design potential improvements

4.Decide what to do

Corresponding issues for thinking about a system

Issue 1: Problem Definition

Issue 2: Improvements from product changes

Issue 3: Improvements from process changes

Issue 4: Improvements related to work system participants

Issue 5: Improvements from better information

Issue 6: Improvements from better technology

Issue 7: Improvements from shared infrastructure

Issue 8: Improvements related to the business context

Issue 9: Improvements from risk reduction

Issue 10: Recommendation

business processes
Business Processes
  • What is the role of data flow diagrams in process modeling?
business processes1
Business Processes
  • What is the role of data flow diagrams in process modeling?
    • Represent the flow of data between different processes in a work system.
    • They reflect nothing on decision criteria, timing of sub-processes, and other details.
    • Context diagram is a first-level DFD.
business processes2
Business Processes
  • What business process characteristics can be used to describe system design choices impacting business process success?
business processes3
Business Processes
  • Seven Characteristics that often affect business process performance:
    • Degree of Structure
    • Range of Involvement
    • Level of Integration
    • Complexity
    • Degree of Reliance on Machines
    • Attention to Planning, Execution, and Control
    • Treatment of Exceptions, Errors, and Malfunctions
business processes4
Business Processes
  • What are different levels for imposing structure on work?
business processes5
Business Processes
  • What are different levels for imposing structure on work?

DEGREE TO WHICH STRUCTURE IS IMPOSED

Highest: Substitution of technology for people

High: Enforcement of rules or procedures

Low: Access to information or tools

business processes6
Business Processes
  • What are the five possible levels of integration of business processes?
    • Level of integration - the level or degree of mutual cooperation or responsiveness between distinct activities or processes.
management support
Management Support
  • In what ways do information systems support various management roles?
common sources of management information
Common Sources of Management Information

FORMAL, COMPUTER-BASED

Internal sources: Key indicators generated by internal tracking systems

External sources: Public databases

FORMAL, DOCUMENT-BASED

Internal sources: Planning reports, internal audits

External sources: Industry reports, books, magazines

FORMAL, VERBAL

Internal sources: Scheduled meetings

External sources: Industry forums

INFORMAL

Internal sources: Lunch conversations, gossip, management-by-walking-around

External sources: Trade shows, personal contacts

data modeling
Data Modeling
  • What is the role of entity-relationship diagrams in data modeling?
data modeling1
Data Modeling
  • What is the role of entity-relationship diagrams in data modeling?
    • From a user’s perspective, most issues about organizing and accessing information boil down to:
      • What information is in the system?
      • How is the information Organized?
      • How can users obtain whatever information they need?
      • Important aspects of E-R diagrams are entities, relationships, and attributes.
data information and knowledge
Data, Information, and Knowledge
  • What is the relationship between data, information, and knowledge?
multidimensionality
Multidimensionality
  • What role does dimensional modeling play for senior management?
  • What are typical dimensions in a business?
  • What are typical facts or measures?
  • How does this relate to drill-down analysis?
dimensional modeling
Dimensional Modeling
  • Dimensional Modeling gives us a way to visualize data.
  • The CEO’s perspective:
    • “We sell products in various markets, and we measure our performance over time.”
  • From the data warehouse designer’s perspective, we hear three dimensions:
    • We sell Products
    • in various Markets
    • and measure performance over time.
typical dimensional model
Typical Dimensional Model

Product Dimension

Sales Fact

Product_key

description

brand

category

Time_key

product_key

store_key

dollars_sold

units_sold

dollars_cost

Time Dimension

Time_key

day-of-week

month

quarter

year

holiday_flag

Store Dimension

Store_key

store_name

address

floor_plan_type

fact table
Fact Table
  • Fact Table is where numerical measurements of the business are stored.
  • Each measurement is taken at the intersection of all the dimensions.
  • The “best” facts are numeric, continuously valued and additive.
  • For every query made against the fact table may use hundreds of thousands of individual records to construct an answer set.
dimension tables
Dimension Tables
  • Dimension tables are where textual descriptions of the business are stored.
  • Each textual description helps to describe a member of the dimension.
  • Example: each member in the product dimension is a specific product. The product dimension database has many attributes to describe the product. A key role of the dimension table attribute is to serve as the source of constraints in a query.
example query
Example Query
  • Find all product brands that were sold in the first quarter of 1995 and present the total dollar sales as well as the number of units.
  • Brand is a collection of individual products.
  • To construct:
    • A. Drag attribute brand from product dimension. Place as Row Header.
    • B. Drag Dollar Sales and Units Sold from the Fact Table, and place to the right of the Brand row header.
    • C. Specify row constraint “1st Q 1995” on the quarter attribute in the Time Dimension Table.
transaction processing systems
Transaction Processing Systems
  • What are some characteristics of transaction processing systems?
  • How does this relate to the Gorry Scott -Morton Framework?
management information system
Management Information System
  • What are characteristics of Management Information Systems?
  • How do they relate to the Gorry Scott Morton Framework?
decision support systems
Decision Support Systems
  • Characteristics?
    • Models that are semi-structured and unstructured.
models
Models
  • Classifications of Models
models1
Models
  • Pounds
    • Historical- expectation based on extrapolation of past experience.
    • Planning - the plan is the expectation
    • Inter-organizational - Models of other people in the organization (e.g. superiors, subordinates, other departments, etc.)
    • Extra-organizational - models where the expectations are derived from competition, customers, professional organizations, etc.
  • Another:
    • Iconic Models - Analog Models
    • Mathematical Models - Mental Models
decision making
Decision-Making
  • What is a model of decision-making?
  • Decision-making Concepts
    • Knowledge of Outcomes
    • Rationality vs. Satisficing
    • bounded rationality
applications development
Applications Development
  • Traditional Systems Development Method
  • Prototyping
communications
Communications
  • Basic Concepts
    • Social Context
    • Personal, Impersonal, Anonymous
    • Time, Place, Direction
    • Approaches for Improving Communication
groupware
Groupware
  • Basic Model classification groupware applications
  • Theoretical Foundation for groupware or electronic meeting systems
  • Issues and Challenges for Designers
    • note - some of these relate to advantages and disadvantages of working in groups.
common communications classified by time and place
Common Communications Classified By Time and Place

Presentation Systems

Copyboards

PC Projectors

Facilitation Services

Polling Systems

Group Decision Rooms

Transaction databases

Shared Files

Electronic Mail

Voice Mail

Shift Work Communications

SAME

PLACE

EDI

Electronic Mail

Computer Conferencing

Voice Mail

Fax

DIFFERENT

PLACE

Typical Telephone

Video Telephone

Video Conferencing

Live Radio TV Broadcast

SAME TIME

DIFFERENT TIME

theoretical foundations for electronic meeting systems
Theoretical Foundations for Electronic Meeting Systems

Group

Task

Process

Outcome

Context

Technology

theoretical foundations
Theoretical Foundations
  • Meeting outcomes (e.g. efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction, etc.) depend on the interaction within the meeting process of four things:
    • the group members
    • working on a task at hand
    • context factors
    • with the technology of the electronic meeting system and the components of the technology the group uses (e.g. anonymity).
theoretical foundations group characteristics
Theoretical Foundations: Group Characteristics
  • Group Size
  • Group Proximity
  • Group Composition (peers or hierarchical)
  • Group Cohesiveness, etc.
foundations task characteristics
Foundations: Task Characteristics
  • Activities to accomplish the task (idea generation, decision choice, etc)
  • Task complexity, equivocality, structure, analyzability, importance, etc.
  • Task Type:
    • Creativity
    • Intellective
    • Preference
    • Planning
    • Cognitive Conflict
    • Mixed Motive
foundations context characteristics
Foundations: Context Characteristics
  • Environment:
    • competition,
    • uncertainty,
    • time pressure,
    • evaluative tone (critical vs. supportive)
  • Organizational:
    • information system
    • age
    • culture
    • reward structure (none vs. individual vs. group)
    • power structure
foundations technology characteristics
Foundations: Technology Characteristics
  • The Technology used
    • (the computer-mediated communication system,
    • The GDSS
    • The EMS
    • How it was designed, its structures, its features etc).
  • In other words, the design of the technology is important.
  • Example: Try comparing 2 simple e-mail systems,
group processes
Group Processes
  • Certain processes improve outcomes while others impair outcomes
  • Meeting outcomes depend on the processes losses and gains