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Endocrine System . Hormone- a chemical messenger that is released into the blood stream. Gland- a group of cells or an organ that secretes hormones. Pituitary Gland- produces a hormone that controls all other hormones, located in the brain. Also known as the “Master Gland”. Endocrine System.

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endocrine system1

Hormone- a chemical messenger that is released into the blood stream.

  • Gland- a group of cells or an organ that secretes hormones.
  • Pituitary Gland- produces a hormone that controls all other hormones, located in the brain. Also known as the “Master Gland”.
Endocrine System
endocrine system2

Thyroid- produces thyroxine, which controls metabolism and body temperature

  • Parathyroid- control the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the body
  • Adrenal- controls the adrenaline hormone which helps us in emergency situations. Also controls the body’s water balance
Endocrine System
endocrine system3

Pancreas- produces insulin needed to break down glucose to be absorbed into the blood. Also part of the digestive system

  • Ovaries- produces the female sex cell, the egg. Estrogen controls the development of secondary sex characteristics
  • Egg/Ovum- female sex cell. One egg cell produced by the ovaries once a month
Endocrine System
endocrine system4

Testes- produces the male sex hormone, testosterone. This is also controls the development of secondary sex characteristics.

  • Sperm- is the male sex cell

- The combination of egg and sperm will result in conception and soon will be developing fetus.

Endocrine System
endocrine system5

Puberty- time in which a teenager will have physical and emotional changes due to the releasing of hormones. Usually begins between ages 12-15.

Endocrine System
male reproduction

Testosterone- male hormone which causes sperm production. Allows for physical changes- broad shoulders, deepened voice, muscular development and hair growth.

  • Testes/Testicles- 2 small glands which produce sperm. In order to survive, sperm must be kept at lower temperatures.
  • Scrotum- holds the testes and protects the sperm from high temperatures.
Male Reproduction
male reproduction1

Epididymis- tube outside the testes which temporarily stores sperm. Allows them to mature here.

  • Vas deferens- the tube which connects the epididymis to the urethra. This is where other fluids are mixed with sperm.
  • Seminal Vesicle- produces the other fluids that are mixed with sperm.
Male Reproduction
male reproductive

Prostate Gland and Cowper’s Gland- other fluid production occurs

  • Urethra- the tube which extends from the bladder and each vas deferens through the penis, outside of the body
  • Penis- external reproduction organ. Composed of tissue and blood vessels, which allow for erection and ejaculation of semen
Male Reproductive
male reproductive1

Sterility- a condition when a person is unable to reproduce

  • Testicular Cancer- Age 15-34 is the most common. Signs- enlarged testicle, lumps or nodules. Self examinations should be done once a month.
Male Reproductive
female reproductive

Estrogen and Progesterone- hormones released by the pituitary gland during puberty. Produces secondary sex characteristics- breast development, widening of the hips and hair growth.

Female Reproductive
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3 Major Functions

  • Produce egg cells or ova
  • Reception of sperm for fertilization
  • Provide nourishment and protection for a fertilized ovum until it’s ready to live outside the body
Female Reproductive
female reproductive2

Ovaries- female sex glands that house ova and produce hormones.

  • Born with over 1 million immature ova
  • Will release 300-500 in her lifetime
  • Ovulation- releasing of one mature ovum each month. This begins around puberty. Ovaries alternate from month to month.
Female Reproductive
female reproductive3

Fallopian Tube- when an ovum is released, it moves along in this tube to the uterus.

  • Finger or hair like projections draw and ovum from the ovary and into and through the fallopian tube.
  • Fertilization can occur if a sperm are present in the fallopian tube when the ovum is released into it.
Female Reproductive
female reproductive4

Fertilization- when one sperm cell unites with the ovum

  • Uterus- small, muscular, pear shaped organ about the size of a fist.
  • Rich with blood vessels
  • Thickness varies depending upon hormones present
  • Zygote- a fertilized ovum attaches to the uterine wall and lives here for 9 months
Female Reproductive
female reproductive5

Cervix-end of the uterus, which is in the vagina, opens during labor.

  • Major site of cancer in women. PID/HPV
  • Papsmears
  • Vagina- Also called the birth canal, is a muscular and elastic tube. This is where sperm is deposited during sexual intercourse.
Female Reproductive
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Menstruation- when the lining of the uterus is shed.

  • 2-3oz of blood and tissue leaves the body
  • Lasts 3-5 days
  • 28 day cycle is the norm
  • The Cycle
  • Days 1-4 Lining of the uterus, menstruation
  • Days 5-12 Uterine wall thickens, egg about to be released
  • Days 13-14 Ovulation occurs, egg is released
  • Days 15-28 Egg travels down fallopian tube into uterus. If not fertilized, menstruation will occur. If fertilized, a baby will began forming.
Female Reproductive
female reproductive7

Health Issues

  • Menstrual cramps- mild cramping can occur
  • Light exercise, a warm bath or a heating pad can relieve these.

2. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)- A variety of symptoms that effect different people differently. Mild to severe

  • Bloating, mood swings, fatigue and weight gain
  • Hormonal imbalances or nutritional deficiencies
Female Reproductive
female reproductive8

3. Toxic Shock Syndrome- Bacterial disease that can occur in women who use tampons.

  • Change every 3-4 hours
  • Symptoms- fever, vomiting, dizziness, flu like symptoms
Female Reproductive