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MUTATION. “Mutation : it is the key to our evolution. It has enabled us to evolve from a single-celled organism into the dominant species on the planet. This process is slow, and normally taking thousands and thousands of years. But every few hundred millennia, evolution leaps forward .”

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Presentation Transcript
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“Mutation: it is the key to our evolution. It has enabled us to evolve from a single-celled organism into the dominant species on the planet. This process is slow, and normally taking thousands and thousands of years. But every few hundred millennia, evolution leaps forward.”

- Professor Charles Xavier

overview
OVERVIEW
  • Gene Mutation: a change in the specific order of the A, G, C, and T bases in a particular gene
  • “Spirit” Bears (Kermode Bears)
    • White due to a mutation in the gene for fur colour
    • Affects 1 of 10 black kermodebears
the effects of mutations
THE EFFECTS OF MUTATIONS
  • 3 types of mutations:
    • Deletion (one base is missing)
    • Addition (one base is added)
    • Substitution (one base is substituted with another
  • Mutations can be positive (beneficial), negative (harmful), or neutral
positive mutation
POSITIVE MUTATION
  • A mutation that benefits an individual

EXAMPLE: HIV is a virus that results in AIDS.

  • Some people have a mutated gene that codes for proteins that prevent HIV infection

EXAMPLE: Plants that have developed resistance to bacteria/fungi

negative mutation
NEGATIVE MUTATION
  • Small changes in DNA base sequences that cause harm to the individual
  • Reduces the likelihood of reproduction or survival

EXAMPLE: Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Substitution of base A for base T in 1 place results in misshapen hemoglobin (red blood cells)
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Result:
    • can’t carry oxygen
    • blocks blood flow, causing pain and organ damage
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EXAMPLE: Cystic Fibrosis
  • can be caused by 1300+ mutations in 1 gene
  • Protein is incorrectly made, causing a mucus buildup
  • Chloride levels build, resulting in respiratory problems
neutral mutation
NEUTRAL MUTATION
  • The substitution of 1 base for another that does not affect the individual
    • Same protein will be made without error

EXAMPLE: The Spirit Bear

  • The mutated fur colour does not impact the bear
mutagens
MUTAGENS
  • Substances or factors that can cause mutations in DNA
  • Viruses can cause DNA to be misread or copied incorrectly
    • When DNA is damaged the proteins will not be made correctly
  • Cigarette smoke, x ray radiation, UV rays, pollutants (mercury), and household chemicals
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