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Chapter 26. Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms. Phylum Porifera (Sponges). Characteristics: Simple body structure with no true tissues; multicellular, ( hermaphrodites —animal has both male and female structures), asymmetrical

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chapter 26

Chapter 26

Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms

phylum porifera sponges
Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  • Characteristics:
    • Simple body structure with no true tissues; multicellular, (hermaphrodites—animal has both male and female structures), asymmetrical
    • Sessile—no movement as adults; are filter feeders (catch food as it floats through them)
    • Have pores that absorb water
    • Spicules—tiny hard particles of calcium or silicon compounds that make up skeleton
phylum porifera sponges1
Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  • Reproduction: can be asexual (budding) or sexual by releasing sperm that enters other sponges through pores where it will fertilize the egg.
    • After fertilization, larvae will develop. Larvae are immature stages of an animal.
sponge reproduction

Egg

cell

Sperm

cells

Flagella

Larvae

New sponge

Sponge Reproduction
review questions
Review Questions

1. What word means that a sponge does not move?

Sessile

2. How do sponges eat?

By filtering the water around them

3. What tiny, hard particles make up the sponge skeleton?

Spicules

phylum cnidaria and cnetophora

Mouth

Tentacle

Cavity

Inner cell layer

Jellylike layer

Bud

Outer cell layer

Disc

Phylum Cnidaria and Cnetophora
  • Characteristics
    • Radial symmetry with true tissues; cup/bell shaped
    • Have stinging cells called nematocysts to help capture food
    • Sting can be fatal to humans
    • examples: hydra (very tiny jellyfish-like animal), jellyfish, coral, sea anemones

Has one body opening made of two layers of cells

body form of cnidarians

Polyp

Medusa

Body Form of Cnidarians
  • Has 2 life forms during their life cycle:
    • Polyp- has a tube-shaped body with a mouth surrounded by tentacles.
    • Medusa- has an umbrella-shaped body called a bell.
reproduction in cnidarians
Reproduction in Cnidarians
  • Reproduction:Sexually and asexually through budding
review questions1
Review Questions

1. What type of symmetry do cnidarians have?

Radial

2. What are nematocysts?

Stinging cells

3. Give an example of a cnidarian.

Coral, jellyfish, sea anemone, hydra

4. What are the 2 life forms of a cnidarian?

Polyp & medusa

phylum platyhelminthes flatworms
Phylum Platyhelminthes “Flatworms”
  • Characteristics
    • Simplest animal with bilateral symmetry; have long, thin flat bodies. Usually hermaphroditic.
    • Many are parasitic (ex: tapeworms, liver flukes)
phylum platyhelminthes flatworms1
Phylum Platyhelminthes “Flatworms”
  • Reproduction
    • Usually hermaphroditic and reproduce sexually. During mating, they fertilize each other at the same time.
  • Some can reproduce asexually by regenerating (regrowing) lost parts. (ex: cut planarian: will grow back lost parts!)
life cycle of a flatworm

Adult flukes

Larva

Embryos

released

Human

host

Snail host

Larva

Life Cycle of a Flatworm
phylum nematoda roundworms and rotifera
Phylum Nematoda “Roundworms” and Rotifera
  • Characteristics
    • Bilateral symmetry, have both mouth and anus
    • Live in soil, fresh and marine water.
    • Nematodes: roundworms that are often parasitic
      • Examples: Ascaria (intestinal roundworm about 1 ft long), hookworms, trichinella (from undercooked pork), pinworms, heartworms
phylum nematoda roundworms and rotifera1
Phylum Nematoda “Roundworms” and Rotifera
  • Reproduction
    • Most have separate sexes. Lay eggs.
slide17

FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans

  • Hookworm infections are common in humans in warm climates where they walk on contaminated soil in bare feet.
  • Hookworms cause people to feel weak and tired due to blood loss.
slide18

FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans

  • Pinworms are the most common human roundworm parasites in the United States.
  • Pinworms are highly contagious because eggs can survive for up to two weeks on surfaces.
fyi ascaris
FYI: Ascaris
  • Eggs of Ascaris are found in soil and enter a human’s body through the mouth.

Ascaris worm coming out of a pig.

phylum annelida segmented worms

Beard worm

Christmas tree worm

Phylum: ANNELIDA “Segmented worms”

- Also have: (turn to pink sheet)

      • Setae—external bristles for movement
      • Coelom—true fluid-filled body cavity
  • Ex: Earthworms, leeches
  • Earthworms loosen soil and make it better for growing plants
  • Reproduction
    • Sexual: hermaphrodites (have sperm and eggs), cannot fertilize themselves.
  • Description: (PG.16 Purple Sheet)
    • Bilateral symmetry, segmented body, closed circulation (have vessels) and true digestive system, oxygen diffuses through skin
phylum annelida segmented worms1
Phylum: ANNELIDA “Segmented worms”

Earthworm

CHARACTERISTICS:

Body Temp - Ectothermic

Symmetry - Bilateral

Digestive System – Complete

Skeletal System – None

Circulatory System – Closed

Reproductive System –

Sexual

Heart Chambers – Heart Body

Leeches

mollusks

Class Gastropoda (snails & slugs)…2nd largest class after Class Insecta

  • Class Bivalvia “Bivalves” (scallops, oysters, clams, mussels)
  • Class Cephalopoda (squid & octupi)…Only mollusks with brains!
Mollusks
phylum mollusca
Phylum: MOLLUSCA

*from Latin word, “molluscus” - soft

Description:

*2ND Largest Phylum of Animals

  • 3 Main Body Parts:

1. Muscular foot

2. Head

3.Visceral mass (its insides)

  • FYI: terrestrial and marine
  • Reproduction
    • Sexual: most have separate sexes, produce gametes

Giant clam

Sea Slug

phylum mollusca1
Phylum: MOLLUSCA

Squid

CHARACTERISTICS:

Ectothermic

Symmetry - Bilateral

Digestive System – Complete

Skeletal System – None

Circulatory System – *OPEN*

Reproductive System –

Sexual

Nervous System - Simple

Heart Chambers - 2 or 3 in some

Nautilus

octopus

slide25

Subphylum Crustacea (lobsters, crabs, crayfish…GILLS)

  • Class Insecta (all insects have 6 legs)
  • Class Arachnida (spiders & scorpions…all have 8 legs)
  • Class Diplopoda (millipedes)
  • Class Chilopoda (centipedes)

Arthropods

phylum arthropoda arthropods
Phylum: ARTHROPODA “Arthropods”

Crabs

  • Description:
    • Have segmented appendages (joints) that allow for flexibility
    • Molting—since exoskeletons do not grow, arthropods have to shed exoskeleton and form new one

Bull Ant

phylum arthropoda arthropods1
Phylum: ARTHROPODA “Arthropods”

Crabs

  • Description:
    • Mandibles—mouthparts for holding, chewing, sucking, biting
    • Have segments fused into three main body sections: head, thorax, abdomen; a fusion of the head & thorax = cephalothorax

Bull Ant

slide28
Oxygen obtained through: gills, tracheal tubes, or lungs
  • Metamorphosis—series of 4 changes in shape and body structure during development.
  • Incomplete metamorphosis—only has 3 stages; once such an insect hatches, it looks almost like the adult version and is called a nymph
slide30

Locust molting

CHARACTERISTICS:

Body Temp - Ectothermic

Symmetry - Bilateral

Digestive System – Complete

Skeletal System – Exoskeleton

Circulatory System – Open

Reproductive System –

Very diverse

Nervous System - Simple

Heart Chambers – Muscular Tube

“Evil” Butterflies

Lobster

the arachnids ticks mites
The Arachnids: Ticks & Mites

Tick

American House Mites

slide33

Spiny Cushion Sea Star

Description:

  • Move with tube feet—appendages with suction cups on tips
  • FYI: Have mouth, stomach, intestines, but no head/brain
  • All echinoderms have exoskeletons made of calcium carbonate.
  • Reproduction
    • Sexually with gametes, asexually with regeneration

Feather

Star

Egyptian Sea Star Sand Dollars

phylum echinodermata echinoderms
Phylum: Echinodermata “Echinoderms”

CHARACTERISTICS:

Body Temp - Ectothermic

Symmetry - Radial

Digestive System – Complete

Skeletal System – Exoskeleton

Circulatory System – Open

Reproductive System –

Sexual & asexual

Heart Chambers – No true heart