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INTRODUCTION. Matter And Measurement. Physical Separation. Chemical Separation. Classification of Matter. M A T T E R. Anything that occupies space (has volume) and has mass. S B S T A N C E. PURE. H 2 O. NaCl. C 12 H 22 O 11. CO 2. examples. O 2. Al.

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Matter

And

Measurement


Physical Separation

Chemical Separation

Classification of Matter


M

A

T

T

E

R

Anything that occupies space (has volume) and has mass


S

B

S

T

A

N

C

E

PURE

H2O

NaCl

C12H22O11

CO2

examples

O2

Al

Matter that has a uniform and definite composition

Substances have distinctive characteristic (identifying) physical & chemical properties

Elements & compounds are substances


E

L

E

M

E

N

T

O2

Na

H2

examples

Al

Cu

A substance that can not be broken down to simpler substances by chemical means

Most elements are composed of individual atoms (some elements are composed of groups of identical atoms).


C

O

M

P

O

U

N

D

C12H22O11

examples

CO2

H2O

A substance composed of two or more elements

A compound can be broken down (decomposed) by chemical means

In compounds, elements are chemically bonded


M

I

X

T

U

R

E

Heterogeneous Mixture

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which is uniform and has a single phase (single state); also called a solution

A mixture which is NOT uniform and usually has more than one phase

example

example

Sand & Water

Sand & Salt

Sand alone

Salt & Water

A physical blend of two or more substances


Comparison of mixture compound
Comparison of Mixture & Compound

MIXTURE

(Example  Saltwater)

COMPOUND

(Example  Water)

  • Physical blend of substances

  • Physical properties of mixture are the same properties of its components

  • Components combine in any ratio

  • Separation is by physical process

  • Chemical combination (bonding) of 2 or more elements

  • Physical properties of compound are unique & different from properties of its elements

  • Components (elements) combine in a definite ratio

  • Separation (decomposition) is a chemical process


Mixture

Compound

H2 (g) and O2 (g)

Hydrogen Gas + Oxygen Gas

H2O (g)

Water Vapor (steam)


Properties of matter
Properties of Matter

Extensive properties

depend on the amount of matter that is present.

Volume

Mass

Energy Content (think Calories!)

Intensive properties

do not depend on the amount of matter present.

Melting point

Boiling point

Density






Substances can be altered by physical changes or chemical changes
Substances can be altered by Physical Changes or Chemical Changes

Examples

PHYSICAL changes

CHEMICAL changes

  • Will alter a substance withoutchanging its composition

  • Are frequently reversible

  • Properties or characteristics do not change

  • Will alter a substance by changing its composition

  • Are not frequently reversible

  • New substances formed have new properties or characteristics


Examples

PHYSICAL changes

CHEMICAL changes

  • Dissolving

  • Evaporating

  • Freezing

Sodium + chlorine  NaCl

silver metal gas salty taste, white, H2O soluble

explosive in water “green” color non flammable

toxic toxic non toxic


Chemical change

When a chemical reaction occurs, one or more substances is changed into new substances

Chemical Change

In every chemical reaction,

one or more of the following can be observed


Indicators of a changed into new substances

Chemical Reaction

Many chemical reaction

are NOT reversible


Classify each process as being a changed into new substancesphysicalchangeonly OR a process that also involves a chemical change (chemical reaction)


Boiling changed into new substances

Decomposing

Dissolving

Grinding


Melting changed into new substances

Evaporating

Tarnishing

Baking


Rusting changed into new substances

Growing

Fermenting

Subliming


Condensing changed into new substances

Rotting

Freezing

Digesting


Three phases
Three Phases changed into new substances

States of Matter


Phase differences
Phase Differences changed into new substances

Solid – definite volume and shape; particles packed in fixed positions.

Liquid – definite volume but indefinite shape; particles close together but not in fixed positions

Gas – neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles are at great distances from one another

Plasma – high temperature, ionized phase of matter as found on the sun.


Separation of a Mixture changed into new substances

The components of dyes such as ink may be separated by paper chromatography.

The components of dyes such as ink may be separated by paper chromatography.


Separation of a mixture
Separation of a Mixture changed into new substances

Distillation


Separation of a compound the electrolysis of water
Separation of a Compound changed into new substancesThe Electrolysis of water

Compounds must be separated by chemical means.

With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elements

Reactant  Products

Water  Hydrogen + Oxygen

H2O  H2 + O2


Organization of matter
Organization of Matter changed into new substances

Matter

Mixtures:

a) Homogeneous(Solutions)

b) Heterogeneous

Pure Substances

Elements

Compounds

Atoms

Nucleus

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons


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