The Roots of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (1890s-1947) By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915 ....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.... Hussein ibn Ali,Sharif of Mecca
The Allied Advance Against the Ottoman Turks Br. GeneralEdmund Allenby
British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of anational home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine… Sir Arthur James BalfourBr. Foreign Secretary
Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment!
“New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge! • Prince Faisal “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. • Prince Abdullah “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinctgeographic regions]. • The House of Saud put on the throne of thenewly-created Saudi Arabia. • The Pahlavi Family put on the throne of a new Iran. • Mustafa Kemal leads a military/nationalistmovement in Turkey.
Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 Modern Turkey Is Born.
Ataturk’s Reform Program • Capital moved from Constantinople to Ankara. • Secularism Qur’an in Turkish translation. • Adoption of a republican constitution and aSwiss civil code. • Westernization & nationalism: • Compulsory, secular education. • Banning the fez. • Western [Roman] script. • Western clothing. • Women unveiled & given full citizenship and the right to vote.
Oil Discovered in Mesopotamia! • First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persiain 1908. • Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia. • Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledgingallegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul,promised exclusive oil rights to the British. • Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914. • In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created.
Oil Becomes the New International“Coin of the Realm!” • American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gainoil concessions in Bahrainin 1929. • In 1933, American oil companies win an oilconcession in Saudi Arabia. • ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co,] is created in 1939.
Rezah Khan (1877-1944) • an Iranian officer, seizedcontrol of the govt. in 1921. • declared himself SHAH in1925. • created the Pahlavi Dynasty. • ruled from 1925-1941. • initiated some modern reforms. • forced to abdicate his throne by the Allied armies in 1941.
Reforms in Iran • Secularization seizure of religious lands. • Adoption of the French civilcode. • Built the Trans-IranianRailroad. • Improved education.
The British in Palestine (1919-1947)
Essential Question: How did Britain’s actions in Palestine after 1918 lay the groundwork for the on-going conflict between the Jews and the Arabs in the Middle East today?
Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1920 • In 1920, there was 1 Jew toevery 10 Arabs inPalestine. • By 1947, the ratio was 2 Arabs forevery Jew. The Arabs felt that they were loosing control of their “country!”
Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System • First one founded in 1908. • Communal living. • “Make the DesertBloom!”
1929 Arab Riots IZBAH AL-YAHUD! [“Slaughter All the Jews!”]
Palestine Arab Revolt: 1936-1939 Their Goals: • An end to Jewish immigration to Palestine. • An end to the transferof lands to Jewish owners. • A new “generalrepresentative government.” The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Hussani, with Adolf Hitler.
British White Paper of 1939 • Limited Jewish immigration toPalestine to 75,000 over the next five years. • It ended Jewish landpurchases. • Independence forPalestine within 10 years. • It is NOT British policythat Palestine become aJewish state.
Aliyah Bet • Illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. • The Exodus, 1947.
Jewish “Freedom Fighters”(or “Terrorists”?) Irgun Zvai Leumi[Natl. Military Org.] Avraham Stern &The Stern Gang