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Distribution of urban center by civic status Source: Census 2001
Majority urban population resides in fewer towns • 62% of Urban Population in India resides in only 8% urban center s(Class I Towns – including 35 million plus cities) ; • 35% of urban population dwell in 66% Urban centre (Class II, III & IV towns); • Only 3% of Population have home in 1079 urban towns (Class V & VI towns) Source: Census 2001
Urban India to witness significant population growth in ensuing years • 67% of total population growth in India in next 25 years is expected to take place in urban areas Source: Population Projections for India, 2001-26, Registrar General of India, 2006; AEGR: Annual Exponential Growth Rate
Larger economies, higher urbanization • Better urban managed states: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala have lower slum dweller • Poorly urban managed states: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh have larger no. of slum inhabitant Source: RBI Handbook of Indian Economy & Census 2001; NSDP: Net State Domestic Product
Mega cities will continue to grow . . . • Western Region will have four mega cities, correspondingly, North and South will have three each; • Kolkata will remain the only Mega city in East • Small cities will witness a higher growth Source: Census of India, 2001 and World Cities, UN-Habitat, 2008-09 UA: Urban Agglomeration; CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate
Sanitation follows Water in Urban India • Observations from NSS 54th round report: • 70% of urban households have Tap as main source of Drinking water • 59% “shares” water sources; • 26% urban households have no access to latrines; Source: NSSO report (2002)
74th Constitution Amendment Act – a milestone An important direction towards strengthening urban governance in India was the enactment of 74th Constitution Amendment Act (CAA) in 1992: • The Act, seeks devolution of powers & responsibilities to local bodies • It gives the ability to raise funds, to control revenues and to deliver projects, to municipalities • The Twelfth Schedule of the 74th CAA (listed in the next slide) assigns various functional responsibilities to municipalities
12th schedule of Indian Constitution • Urban planning including town planning • Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings • Planning for economic and social development • Roads and bridges • Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes • Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management • Fire services • Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects • Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded • Slum improvement and upgradation • Urban poverty alleviation • Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds • Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects • Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds and electric crematoriums • Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals • Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths • Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences • Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.