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Some facts about Urban India. Present Urban Settings. Distribution of urban center by civic status . Source: Census 2001. Majority urban population resides in fewer towns. 62% of Urban Population in India resides in only 8% urban center s(Class I Towns – including 35 million plus cities) ;

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majority urban population resides in fewer towns
Majority urban population resides in fewer towns
  • 62% of Urban Population in India resides in only 8% urban center s(Class I Towns – including 35 million plus cities) ;
  • 35% of urban population dwell in 66% Urban centre (Class II, III & IV towns);
  • Only 3% of Population have home in 1079 urban towns (Class V & VI towns)

Source: Census 2001

urban india to witness significant population growth in ensuing years
Urban India to witness significant population growth in ensuing years
  • 67% of total population growth in India in next 25 years is expected to take place in urban areas

Source: Population Projections for India, 2001-26, Registrar General of India, 2006;

AEGR: Annual Exponential Growth Rate

larger economies higher urbanization
Larger economies, higher urbanization
  • Better urban managed states: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala have lower slum dweller
  • Poorly urban managed states: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh have larger no. of slum inhabitant

Source: RBI Handbook of Indian Economy & Census 2001; NSDP: Net State Domestic Product

mega cities will continue to grow
Mega cities will continue to grow . . .
  • Western Region will have four mega cities, correspondingly, North and South will have three each;
  • Kolkata will remain the only Mega city in East
  • Small cities will witness a higher growth

Source: Census of India, 2001 and World Cities, UN-Habitat, 2008-09

UA: Urban Agglomeration; CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate

sanitation follows water in urban india
Sanitation follows Water in Urban India
  • Observations from NSS 54th round report:
  • 70% of urban households have Tap as main source of Drinking water
  • 59% “shares” water sources;
  • 26% urban households have no access to latrines;

Source: NSSO report (2002)

74 th constitution amendment act a milestone
74th Constitution Amendment Act – a milestone

An important direction towards strengthening urban governance in India was the enactment of 74th Constitution Amendment Act (CAA) in 1992:

  • The Act, seeks devolution of powers & responsibilities to local bodies 
  • It gives the ability to raise funds, to control revenues and to deliver projects, to municipalities
  • The Twelfth Schedule of the 74th CAA (listed in the next slide) assigns various functional responsibilities to municipalities
12 th schedule of indian constitution
12th schedule of Indian Constitution
  • Urban planning including town planning
  • Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings
  • Planning for economic and social development
  • Roads and bridges
  • Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes
  • Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management
  • Fire services
  • Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects
  • Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded
  • Slum improvement and upgradation
  • Urban poverty alleviation
  • Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds
  • Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects
  • Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds and electric crematoriums
  • Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals
  • Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths
  • Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences
  • Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.