The First-Ever Electric Aircraft Symposium Main Issues: Environmental Technologic Economic Political and Societal
ePAV--Questions “What are the global energy and environmental imperatives that affect the development of electric-powered vehicles?” “Why are Personal Air Vehicles (PAVs) and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) the best type of aircraft to become electric powered? “ “What advantages could ePAVs and eUAVs offer?” “What technologic, economic and infrastructure changes are needed for ePAVs to have a significant role in transportation?” “How and when do we get there? A technology prize?”
“The Way I See It”(Starbucks # 234) “How have we become so addicted to petroleum oil? How would the world be different if we could make all our own fuel in our own country? For the last two years I have driven to work on soybeans. This is possible in our lifetime.” ---Martin Tobias, CEO, Imperium Renewables, a bio-diesel refinery company.
The Ideal Personal Aircraft All weather Self-piloted STOL Quiet Enviro-friendly Bio-fueled or “e” Avoids traffic “Self-Awareness”
Airlines: Need huge airports Demand liquid fuel Stratospheric emissions Limited routes Airlines door to door average just 55 mph
Solution: More Roads or Mass Transit? Low Ridership HSR = 10x cost (Madison Institute Study for Florida) Freeways cost $20M per mile
NASA: 21st Century Mobility NASA: 21st Century Mobility
The NASA PAV Challenge The Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency Foundation Santa Rosa, California 95404.
$250,000 Prize Purse For 2007 • Vantage Prize: overall points winner $100 • CAFE Efficiency Prize: trip cost $ 25K • Noise Prize: cabin and community $ 50K • Handling/Ease of Use Prize: judges $ 25K • Shortest Runway Prize: Takeoffs only $ 25K • Top Speed Prize: closed pylon racing $ 25K
What About Electric Power for Aircraft? 1 gal diesel = 38 miles in a diesel IC car 1 gal diesel = 89 miles in an electric car (diesel generator) Some motorgliders need only 10 BHP to fly level 55 BHP GSE bio-diesel engine weighs 45 lb Tesla Electric Car: 0-60 MPH in 4 sec. 250 BHP 220 mile range 900 lb Lithium batteries
Solar Power? 1 KW/sq.m. Solar Cell Efficiency: 18.8% for Copper indium diselenide cells 15.8% for Cadmium Telluride cells 12% for amorphous-Si cells 40.7% recently reported in lab prototype
L/D Optimization L/D is high for sailplanes High AR Short chord Laminar flow Tandem Wing loading? High Lift devices? 70 to 1 best ever L/D
Stemme S-8-RT ~$200,000 37:1 L/D @ 72 mph 150 mph on 47 THP 72 mph on 13.2 THP 59’ span, wings fold to 23’ Battery-powered? @ 8K’ GW: 1850-200+900 = 2550 290 mi range at 81 mph 250 mi range at 107 mph
Solar eStemme S-8-RT Now Add Solar Cells To Extend Range at 81 mph 16 sq m. solar wing area: If Solar capture =16%, then gain 2.5 KW Extends range to: 360 miles If Solar capture = 40%, then gain 6.4 KW Extends range to: 587 miles
Stemme S-8-RTBio-diesel? 15 BHP bio-diesel from GSE generates 10 KW 50 lb engine/generator weight + 150 lb fuel 0.4 bsfc at constant power —> 1 gph reduces Vy battery power need to 1 KW extends range to over 1600 miles @ 107 mph @ 107 MPG extends range to over 1200 miles @ 81 mph @ 80 MPG
Stemme S-8-RT Hybrid? Adding efficient solar cells to bio-diesel could enable + net charging to batteries in flight. Added weight demands exotic high lift devices
Stemme S-8-RT Hybrid? Problems: Motor meltdown Battery fires Added Weight of solar cells, batteries, generator Recharge time Recharge availability Night flying COST for consumers
Electric Stemme S-8-RT Future gains in: Li ion batteries: 50-100% Solar cell efficiency: to 60% Carbon nano-tube weight savings: 2-4x Ultra-capacitors?
Ramp parking ePAVs Solar cells mean no hangars Really strong tie-downs Folding wings with quick conversion Bio-diesel generators running unattended? Plug-in hybrids?
Parking:Solar ePAVs Antares 20E Wings should fold aft so solar cells stay active
Getting to Grandma’s 1971: An early 4 passenger bicycle
Getting to Grandma’s While staying dry PEV: Personal Electric Vehicle Velo
Other Way-out Stuff Georgia Tech-USAF: 3D solar cells capture AM to PM Boeing-Spectrolab: multi-junction solar cell: 40.7% Power Towers and Heliostats use mirrors to aim sun Solar cells that release 6 electrons per quanta? Amstein Germany
PAVs Transform Airports Into Hives Walk to town
Happiness “Happiness comes from engaging in activities just beyond our skill level.” --- Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
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