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The ICE 3 Experiment. Thanks to O. Botner (Neutrino-2004). Acceleration up to 10 21 eV ?. ~10 2 Joules ~0.01 M GUT. Ultra high energy n ’s are associated with the sources of high energy cosmic rays. p + p(  )      e ,  . Dense regions with exceptional

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the ice 3 experiment

The ICE3 Experiment

Thanks to O. Botner (Neutrino-2004)

acceleration up to 10 21 ev
Acceleration up to 1021 eV ?

~102 Joules

~0.01 MGUT

Ultra high energy n’s are associated with the sources of high energy cosmic rays

p+ p()    e ,

  • Dense regions with exceptional
  • gravitational force creating relativistic
  • flows of charged particles, e.g.
    • coalescing black holes/neutron stars
    • dense cores of exploding stars
    • supermassive black holes

D. Bertrand

slide3

Supernova Remnant in X-rays

Shock fronts

Fermiacceleration

D. Bertrand

slide4

Black Hole

Accretion Disk

Active Galactic Nucleus

(Artist impression)

Shock fronts

Jets

Fermiacceleration

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slide5

IceCube – a ”next generation” n observatory

kilometer-scale successor to AMANDA

A 1 kilometer squared area is needed to see the potential energetic sources

Candidates for 10 events/year/km² (n ~ g)

D. Bertrand

slide6

ICE3

Planned Location 1 km “west”

South Pole

“North”

Dark sector

Skiway

AMANDA

Dome

D. Bertrand

the ice 3 detector
The ICE3 detector
  • 160 frozen water tanks (2/string)
  • Ice cylinder (2 m diameter; 0.9 m height)
  • 2 OM’s each
  • 80 strings
  • 17 m OM spacing
  • 125 m between strings
  • Geometry optimized for a detection range [TeV-PeV(EeV)]

D. Bertrand

amanda integration
AMANDA integration
  • AMANDA now runs with TWR
  • Data similar in structure to ICE3
  • Work on a combined trigger
  • Position of 1st ICE3 strings
  • As close to AMANDA as possible
  • But … logistics and safety requirements
  • AMANDA
  • Calib. device for 1st ICE3 strings
  • + 20 ICE3 strings = powerful combined detector
  • Fully integrated low threshold subdetector of ICE3

D. Bertrand

icetop ice 3 1 3 km sr for coincident tracks
IceTop+ICE3: 1/3 km².sr (for coincident tracks)

Energy range 1015 eV - 1018 eV

VETO against

  • All downward events E > 300 TeV with trajectories inside IceTop
  • Larger events falling outside

CALIBRATION

  • of angular response with tagged µ
  • Measure
  • Energy spectrum
  • Chemical composition

Expect ~100 tagged air showers/day

with multi-TeV µ’s in Ice3

  • Muon survey of Ice3

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cosmic ray physics

Showers triggering 4 stations give

~300 TeV threshold

Large showers

with E ~ 100-1000 PeV

will clarify transition

from galactic to

extra-galactic cosmic

rays

Small showers (2-10 TeV)

associated with the dominantm background detected as 2-tank coincidences at a station.

Cosmic ray physics

IceCube - Icetop coincidences

D. Bertrand

digital optical module dom
Digital Optical Module (DOM)

Optical sensor :

10 inch Hamamatsu R-7081

Local digitization :

  • Time stamp
  • Wave form
  • Buffer
  • Digital transmission to surface on request

Sampling at 300 MHz over 0.5 µs

at 40 MHz over 5 µs

Dynamic range 200 p.e./15 ns

2000 p.e./ 5µs

penetrator

HV board

flasher board

pressure sphere

DOM

main board

  • Local Controls :
  • HV
  • Discriminators
  • Global synchronization

delay

board

PMT

optical gel

mu metal cage

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enhanced hot water drill
Enhanced hot water drill

AMANDA (3-reel) and ICE3 (1-reel) drill

AMANDA system

ICE3

  • Goals
  • 18 holes/season
  • 2450 m deep
  • straight within 1m
  • quality logged

AMANDA ICE3

Power consum. 2 MW 5 MW

Time to 2400 m 120-140 h 35-40 h

Fuel (gal/hole) 10000-12000 7000-8000

Set-up time 5 – 6 weeks 18-25 d

D. Bertrand

ice3 daq architecture
ICE3 DAQ architecture
  • DOM hub :
  • Industrial PC
  • Dual 1 GHz PIII processor
  • 2 GB memory
  • 250 GB hard-drive
  • dual 400W power supply for DOM’s

5 DOM hubs for ICETOP

80 DOM hubs for the

in ice devices

D. Bertrand

slide14

ICE3 physics performance

ICE3 will be able to identify

  •  tracks from for E>1011 eV
  • cascades from efor E> 1013 eV
  •  for E> 1015 eV

Eµ=10 TeV

  • Background
  • mainly downgoing cosmic ray’s
  • (+ time coinc. ’s from uncorrelated air showers)
  • exp. rate at trigger level ~1.7 kHz
  • atm.  rate at trigger level ~300/day

Rejected

 using direction/energy/flavor id

 temporal/spatial coincidence w. source

for E< 1 PeV focus on the Northern sky

for E> 1 PeV sensitive aperture increases w. energy

 full sky observationspossible

D. Bertrand

ice 3 effective area angular resolution

Galactic

center

ICE3 effective area & angular resolution (µ)

Further improvement expected

using waveform info

Median angular reconstruction

uncertainty ~ 0.8

  • E-2nmspectrum
  • After quality cuts and bgr suppression (atm µ reduction by ~106)

D. Bertrand

diffuse n flux point sources

Eµ= 6 PeV, 1000 hits

Eµ= 10 TeV, 90 hits

Diffuse 

hard Eµ cut

Eµ > 100 TeV

Point sources 

softer Eµ cut

+ spatial

correlation

Diffuse nµ flux & Point sources
  • Objective (after removal of atm µ background):
  • Reject the steep energy spectrum of atm n
  • Retain as much signal as possible from a (generic) E-2 spectrum

Use optimized energy cut Eµ number of hit OM’s

D. Bertrand

diffuse n flux

atm v

signal

Diffuse nµ flux

Assume generic flux dN/dE = 10 –7 E-2 (cm-2s-1sr-1GeV)

Expect

~ 103 events/year after atm µ rejection

~ 75 events/year after energy cut

cf background 8 atm n

blue: after atm µ rejection

red: after Eµ cut

Sensitivity (1 y):8.110-9 E-2

(cm-2s-1sr-1GeV)

D. Bertrand

steady point sources
Steady point sources

Sensitivity point sources (1 y):

5.510-9 E-2 (cm-2s-1GeV)

Search cone 1 opening half-angle

+ ”soft” energy cut (< 1 TeV)

Transient point sources

– ex GRB

Essentially background-free search :

Energy, spatial and temporal correlation with independent observation

  • For ~1000 GRB’s observed/year

expect (looking in Northern sky only)

  • Signal: 12 n
  • Background (atm n): 0.1

Sensitivity GRB (1 y):

~0.2 fWB

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cascades

e  e

E = 375 TeV

nt  “double bang”

E = 1PeV

~300m

IceTop veto

on cosmics

C.O.G. inside

array

E << 1 PeV 2 cascades coincide

E  1 PeV ”double bang”

E >> 1 PeV ”lollipop” (partial containment, reconstruct t track + 1 cascade)

  • Lcascade ~10 m small cf sensor spacing
  • ”spherical” energy deposition
  •  at 1 PeV, Øcascade ~ 500 m
Cascades

 ~10% in log(E/TeV)

  • sensitivity

to all flavors

  • 4p coverage

For diffuse flux expect similar sensitivity

in the cascade channel as in the muon channel

 Considerable improvement of overall sensitivity

D. Bertrand

neutralino dark matter
Neutralino dark matter

astro-ph/0401113 (Lundberg/Edsjö)

WIMP orbits in the solar system

perturbed

Rates from the Sun less affected

Rates from the Earth affected

Direct and indirect searches

might not be directly comparable

  • Past/present history of solar syst.
  • Low/high energy tail of  vel. distr.

D. Bertrand

Sun

status of ice 3
Status of ICE3
  • Many reviews – international and within the U.S. - strongly emphasize

the exciting science which can be performed with ICE3

  • In Jan 2004, the U.S. Congress approved

the NSF budget including the full ICE3 MRE

  • Significant funding approved also in Belgium, Germany and Sweden
  • In Feb 2004, NSF conducted a baseline review  “go ahead”
  • However … revised baseline

preserving original scientific goals

preserving current detector design

straightforward upgrade path

ICE3 strings IceTop tanks

4 8 Jan 2005

16 32 Jan 2006

32 64 Jan 2007

50 100 Jan 2008

68 136 Jan 2009

70+n 140+2n Jan 2010

D. Bertrand

summary
Summary
  • ICE3 is for real ! - and moving ahead at full speed
  • AMANDA experience provides for huge benefits
  • - both logistics-wise and for simulations/reconstruction
  • ICE3 is expected to be
  • Considerably more sensitive than AMANDA
  • Provide new opportunities for discovery
  • With IceTop – a unique tool for cosmic ray physics

Decision

on total number of strings

summer 2006

1st challenge – successful deployment

of strings 2004/2005

  • Data taking during construction
  • First data augment AMANDA data
    • Later AMANDA an integral part of ICE3

D. Bertrand

transmission of n through the earth
Transmission of nµ through the earth

TeV: use upward going muons

PeV: use horizontal events

EeV: use events from above

AMANDA-II

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status of ice 31
Status of ICE3
  • Drill development on schedule for operation at Pole in Jan 2005
  • Instrumentation
    • Production for the 4 string first season starts this summer
      • 50% PMTs delivered – on schedule
      • 3 DOM production sites
          • Wisconsin 290 1st season
          • DESY 60 1st season
          • Sweden 50 1st season
      • Spheres ordered – 40K depleted Benthos (dark noise ~0.8 kHz)
      • DOM mainboard – designed @ LBNL tests OK
      • DAQ S/W developed
      • Data transfer DOM  DOM Hub  Data Collection prog tested
      • Implementation for first season’s DAQ
      • Cables – Ericsson, Sweden / JDR, Netherlands
      • Preparing for analysis of early data (calibration, testing)
      • 4 DOM’s are collecting IceTop data using test s/w

D. Bertrand

slide25

IceTop tank with hood

at the South Pole – Nov 2003

View of DOMs

D. Bertrand