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Chapter 4. BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATA. CHAPTER OVERVIEW. Describe the various types of hardware used to perform backups. Understand the difference between full, incremental, and differential backup jobs. List the capabilities of the Windows Server 2003 Backup program.

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BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATA


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chapter overview
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATACHAPTER OVERVIEW
  • Describe the various types of hardware used to perform backups.
  • Understand the difference between full, incremental, and differential backup jobs.
  • List the capabilities of the Windows Server 2003 Backup program.
  • Back up and restore an Active Directory database.
  • Use volume shadow copies.
backing up data
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKING UP DATA
  • Why do we back up data?
  • Why do we need to back up data?
backup solution
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKUP SOLUTION
  • Backup hardware
  • Backup medium
  • Backup software
  • Data to be backed up
cd rom and dvd rom
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATACD-ROM AND DVD-ROM
  • CD
    • Inexpensive, widely supported
    • Capacity up to 650 MB
  • DVD
    • Becoming less expensive
    • Less support than for CDs
    • Capacity can be over 4 GB
cartridge drives
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATACARTRIDGE DRIVES
  • Proprietary technology
  • Zip (Up to 750-MB capacity)
  • Jaz (2-GB capacity)
magnetic tape drives
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAMAGNETIC TAPE DRIVES
  • Use single or double spool magnetic cartridges
  • Low cost per megabyte
  • Large capacity
autochangers
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAAUTOCHANGERS
  • Reduce the need for manual intervention in backups
  • Allow you to back up more data
  • Preserves investment in media
selecting a drive interface
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATASELECTING A DRIVE INTERFACE
  • IDE
    • Inexpensive
    • Performance degrades drastically when using more than one device per channel
  • SCSI
    • Faster than IDE, more suited to writing continuous streams of data
    • Might require additional host bus adapter (controller)
backup software
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKUP SOFTWARE
  • Windows Server 2003 Backup
  • Third-party software
    • Veritas Backup Exec
    • BrightStor ARCserve Backup
target selection
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATATARGET SELECTION
  • Anything that is to be backed up is considered a backup target, including:
    • Single file or folder
    • Entire drive
    • Entire system
    • Another system on the network
using filters
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAUSING FILTERS
  • Filter on file creation date/time, size, or type
  • Allows you to perform customized backups
  • Can reduce the time needed to back up and the amount of media required
backup job types normal
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKUP JOB TYPES: NORMAL
  • Backs up all files
  • Clears the archive bit
  • Can require large data storage capacity
backup job types incremental
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKUP JOB TYPES: INCREMENTAL
  • Backs up only files that have been modified or created since the last full or incremental backup
  • Clears the archive bit
  • Can require considerably less storage space than a normal backup
  • Faster to backup than differential, longer restore
backup job types differential
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKUP JOB TYPES: DIFFERENTIAL
  • Backs up only files that have been modified or created since the last full or incremental backup
  • Does not clear the archive bit
  • Can require considerably less storage space than a normal backup
  • Longer to backup than incremental, faster restore
copy jobs and daily jobs
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATACOPY JOBS AND DAILY JOBS
  • Copy job
    • Backs up all files irrespective of archive bit status
    • Does not change archive bit status
  • Daily job
    • Backs up files based on today's date
    • Does not change archive bit status
job scheduling
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAJOB SCHEDULING
  • Allows backups to be performed during off-hours
  • Reduces potential for administrative error
maintaining backup logs
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAMAINTAINING BACKUP LOGS

Detailed

  • Includes name and size of every file backed up

Summary

  • Errors, number of files backed up, amount of data backed up

None

  • No logging, not even of error messages
cataloging
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATACATALOGING
  • Allows backup software to keep track of what file is on what tape
  • Eliminates the need for administrators to remember detailed information about the contents of a tape
  • Can be stored on the system hosting the backup software or the tape
media rotation
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAMEDIA ROTATION
  • Provides a method to retain backups for a given period
  • Prevents overuse of media

Common rotation methods include:

  • Grandfather-Father-Son
  • Tower of Hanoi
device configuration
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATADEVICE CONFIGURATION

Tape formatting

  • Prepares a new or used tape for data storage

Tape erasing

  • Removes all data from the tape

Tape retensioning

  • Mechanism to ensure that a tape has the proper tension

Compression

  • Data compression that can often double the amount of data written to a tape, with little or no performance impact
performing restores
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAPERFORMING RESTORES
  • Complexity depends on backup cycle in use (full, incremental, differential).
  • Amount of time depends on volume of data to be restored.
  • Periodic restores should be performed to test integrity of backups.
restoring full backups
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATARESTORING FULL BACKUPS
  • Easiest of all backup methods to restore
  • Restores latest full backup
restoring full and incremental backups
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATARESTORING FULL AND INCREMENTAL BACKUPS
  • Restores the latest full backup
  • Restores incremental backups from oldest to most recent
  • Number of restore steps depends on the time since the last full backup
restoring full and differential backups
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATARESTORING FULL AND DIFFERENTIAL BACKUPS
  • Restores the latest full backup
  • Restores the latest differential backup
  • Only two restore steps are required
backup security
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATABACKUP SECURITY
  • Create specific user account for backups
  • Password-protect tapes
  • Store and transport tapes securely
volume shadow copy
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATAVOLUME SHADOW COPY
  • Periodically saves copies of files
  • Can be used to restore previous versions of a file
  • Available only in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP
  • Also used by Windows Server 2003 Backup to make copies of open files
restoring active directory
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATARESTORING ACTIVE DIRECTORY
  • Can only be performed through Directory Services Restore Mode

Nonauthoritative restore

  • Used to rebuild a domain controller that has been damaged, using the latest Active Directory information from your other domain controllers

Authoritative restore

  • Used when you want to recover Active Directory objects that have been accidentally deleted using a System State backup
summary
Chapter 4: BACKING UP AND RESTORING DATASUMMARY
  • A network backup solution consists of backup hardware, backup software, and a plan for using them.
  • Incremental and differential backup jobs use the archive bit to determine what files need to be backed up.
  • Network backup software enables you to back up data from computers anywhere on the network.
  • Volume shadow copy enables users to access copies of files they have accidentally deleted or damaged.
  • In Windows Server 2003 Backup, the System State object provides an easy way to back up Active Directory.
  • Active Directory can be restored only through Directory Services Restore Mode.