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Social-Ethnic Challenges. Old and new. Immigration (“Aliyah”= Ascent) Synopsis. 1948-1992 2.3 Million Jewish Immigrants Yearly average: 50,000 Jewish population (year 2000): 5 Million Arab population 1.3 Million Total population today: 7,000,000

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immigration aliyah ascent synopsis
Immigration (“Aliyah”= Ascent) Synopsis
  • 1948-1992 2.3 Million Jewish Immigrants
  • Yearly average: 50,000
  • Jewish population (year 2000): 5 Million
  • Arab population 1.3 Million
  • Total population today: 7,000,000
  • Emigration (“Yeridah”=Descent”) 1948-1979: 318,000
  • Four Waves:
    • 1948-1951 - 700,000
    • 1955-1957 – 165,000
    • 1972-1979 – 268,000
    • 1989-1992 – 475,000
waves of immigration before 1967
Waves of immigrationBefore 1967
  • 1948-1951 700,000
    • Half from Middle-Eastern Countries

- Doubling Jewish population

- Changing ethnic composition

  • 1955-1957 165,000
    • Mostly from North-Africa
  • 1961-1964 228,000
    • From various countries
1967 1977 turning point
1967-1977 turning point
  • 1967 Immigration responding to pull factors
  • Change in Immigration composition
  • Growing liberalism Pluralism
  • Growing rage against former authoritarianism
  • 1977 Throwing MAPAI as the symbol
post 1967
Post 1967
  • 1972-1979 268,000

- half from Soviet union

- Mainly from western-European

provinces

- Zionism and Jewish heritage

  • 1980-1989 154,000
    • 65% from the West
    • 11% from Ethiopia (Moses Operation)
    • 6% from Iran
  • 1989-1992 475,000 from Former Soviet Union
    • Mainly Russia, Ukraine and Asia
  • 30,000 from Ethiopia (Solomon Operation)
  • By year 2000 877,000 Soviet Jews immigrated to Israel
  • 55,000 Ethiopian immigrants + 21,000 Israeli-born
the state
The State
  • Continuing encouragement of immigration – the raison d'étre of the Jewish state
  • The profound role of the state and the JA in absorption
  • The transformation of government approach to absorption:
    • Liberalization
    • Response to social criticism
    • New types of immigrants
the challenge of former oriental olim
Success

Growing involvement in government, army, bureaucracy

Growing presentation in academia

Profound presentation in popular culture

challenge

Growing cultural-ideological demands (Arab Jews; cultural legacy)

Envy and frustration in response to Russian immigration

Growing political self-awareness and social struggle (Keshet Mizrahit)

The challenge of former Oriental Olim
political activity
Political activity
  • Political parties as channels for social, political, economic integration
  • = continuing legacy
  • = crucial ingredient in Israeli democracy
  • Oriental religious (SHAS)
  • Russian secular party (Israel Ba’aliyah)
  • Crossing lines of Left and Right
change and new challenges
Change and New Challenges
  • The unique challenge and response to Ethiopian immigration
  • The struggle between old ideas of "new Jew" and post-modern cultural pluralism
  • Interaction between Political and social challenges – Arabs, peace, religion