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Social-Ethnic Challenges

Social-Ethnic Challenges

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Social-Ethnic Challenges

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  1. Social-Ethnic Challenges Old and new

  2. Immigration (“Aliyah”= Ascent) Synopsis • 1948-1992 2.3 Million Jewish Immigrants • Yearly average: 50,000 • Jewish population (year 2000): 5 Million • Arab population 1.3 Million • Total population today: 7,000,000 • Emigration (“Yeridah”=Descent”) 1948-1979: 318,000 • Four Waves: • 1948-1951 - 700,000 • 1955-1957 – 165,000 • 1972-1979 – 268,000 • 1989-1992 – 475,000

  3. Waves of immigrationBefore 1967 • 1948-1951 700,000 • Half from Middle-Eastern Countries - Doubling Jewish population - Changing ethnic composition • 1955-1957 165,000 • Mostly from North-Africa • 1961-1964 228,000 • From various countries

  4. 1967-1977 turning point • 1967 Immigration responding to pull factors • Change in Immigration composition • Growing liberalism Pluralism • Growing rage against former authoritarianism • 1977 Throwing MAPAI as the symbol

  5. Post 1967 • 1972-1979 268,000 - half from Soviet union - Mainly from western-European provinces - Zionism and Jewish heritage • 1980-1989 154,000 • 65% from the West • 11% from Ethiopia (Moses Operation) • 6% from Iran • 1989-1992 475,000 from Former Soviet Union • Mainly Russia, Ukraine and Asia • 30,000 from Ethiopia (Solomon Operation) • By year 2000 877,000 Soviet Jews immigrated to Israel • 55,000 Ethiopian immigrants + 21,000 Israeli-born

  6. The State • Continuing encouragement of immigration – the raison d'étre of the Jewish state • The profound role of the state and the JA in absorption • The transformation of government approach to absorption: • Liberalization • Response to social criticism • New types of immigrants

  7. Success Growing involvement in government, army, bureaucracy Growing presentation in academia Profound presentation in popular culture challenge Growing cultural-ideological demands (Arab Jews; cultural legacy) Envy and frustration in response to Russian immigration Growing political self-awareness and social struggle (Keshet Mizrahit) The challenge of former Oriental Olim

  8. Political activity • Political parties as channels for social, political, economic integration • = continuing legacy • = crucial ingredient in Israeli democracy • Oriental religious (SHAS) • Russian secular party (Israel Ba’aliyah) • Crossing lines of Left and Right

  9. Change and New Challenges • The unique challenge and response to Ethiopian immigration • The struggle between old ideas of "new Jew" and post-modern cultural pluralism • Interaction between Political and social challenges – Arabs, peace, religion