What is Responsible Conduct of Research?. The Nine Core Areas and What You Need to Know and Teach. The Nine Elements. Advisor/Mentor Role Treatment of Data Research Misconduct Human Subjects Animal Welfare Conflict of Interest/Commitment Publication Practices/Authorship Peer Review
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The Nine Core Areas and What You Need to Know and Teach
Data management has become a formalized process for many sponsors addressed in applications. Elements of Data Management include:
Misconduct in Research is defined by the U.S. Office of Research Integrity as: “fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
(a) Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
(b) Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
(c) Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
(d) Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.
The Office of Research Integrity describes Authorship and Publication as:
Whether structured or informal, controlled or free ranging, responsible publication in research should ideally meet some minimum standards. All forms of publication should present:
ORI’s discussion of peer review is as follows:
Peer review—evaluation by colleagues with similar knowledge and experience—is an essential component of research and the self-regulation of professions. The average person does not have the knowledge and experience needed to assess the quality and importance of research. Peers do. Therefore many important decisions about research depend on advice from peers, including:
The quality of the decisions made in each case depends heavily on the quality of peer review.
Peer review can make or break professional careers and directly influence public policy. The fate of entire research programs, health initiatives, or environmental and safety regulations can rest on peer assessment of proposed or completed research projects. For peer review to work, it must be:
Researchers who serve as peer reviewers should be mindful of the public as well as the professional consequences of their evaluations and exercise special care when making these evaluations.