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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HYDROGEN SAFETY September 8-10, 2005 – PISE - ITALY. 230003_Barthélémy, H. and Allidières, L., Gaseous hydrogen Refuelling Stations : Selection of Materials for Hydrogen High Pressure Fuelling Connectors. EXAMPLE OF FUELLING STATION FOR HYDROGEN VEHICLES.

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International conference on hydrogen safety september 8 10 2005 pise italy

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCEON HYDROGEN SAFETYSeptember 8-10, 2005 – PISE - ITALY

230003_Barthélémy, H. and Allidières, L.,Gaseous hydrogen Refuelling Stations : Selection of Materials for Hydrogen HighPressure Fuelling Connectors



HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

  • Internal

  • External


HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

1 - COMBINED STATE :

Hydrogen attack

2 - IN METALLIC SOLUTION :

Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement


T  200°C Hydrogen embrittlement

T  200°C Hydrogen attack

HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

  • Important parameter : THE TEMPERATURE


GASEOUS HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT(G H E)

  • Reversible phenomena

  • Transport of H2 by the dislocations

H2 TRAPS – CRITICAL

CONCENTRATION AND

DECOHESION ENERGY


(GHE) – DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST METHODS (1)

  • Static (delayed rupture test)

  • Dynamic

Constant strain rate

Fatigue


(GHE) – DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST METHODS (2)

  • Fracture mechanic (CT, WOL, …)

  • Tensile test

  • Disk test

  • Other mechanical test (semi-finished products)

  • Test methods to evaluate hydrogen permeation and trapping


(GHE) – DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST METHODS (3)

Specimens for compact tension test


(GHE) – DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST METHODS (4)

  • Can also be performed with specimens cathodically charged and with tensile specimens in a high pressure cell

Tensile specimens for hydrogen tests (hollow tensile specimen)


(GHE) – DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST METHODS (5)

  • I = (% RAN - % RAH) / % RAN

  • I = Embrittlement index

  • RAN = Reduction of area without H2

  • RAH = Reduction of area without H2


(GHE) – DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST METHODS (6)

  • Upper flange

  • Bolt Hole

  • High-strength steel ring

  • Disk

  • O-ring

  • Lower flange

  • Gas inlet

Disk testing method – Rupture cell for embedded disk-specimen




I

m (MPa)

DISK TEST – EMBRITTLEMENT INDEX

Thin wall cylinders

Thick wall cylinders

(Good H2 behaviour)

Thin wall cylinders

Thick wall cylinders

(Bad H2 behaviour)

Hydrogen embrittlement indexes (I) of reference materials versus maximum wall stresses (m) of the corresponding pressure vessels


DISK TEST – EMBRITTLEMENT INDEX

Fatigue test - Principle


DISK TEST – EMBRITTLEMENT INDEX

Fatigue test - Pressure cycle


nN2

nH2

FATIGUE TESTS, VERSUS  P CURVES

6

Cr

-

Mo STEEL

Pure H

2

5

H

+ 300 ppm O

2

2

F 0,07 Hertz

4

3

2

1

Delta P (MPa)

0

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13


Fatigue test

Principle to detect fatigue crack initiation


TESTS CHARACTERISTICSType of hydrogen embrittlement and transport mode


TESTS CHARACTERISTICSPractical point of view


TESTS CHARACTERISTICSType of hydrogen embrittlement and transport mode



EFFECT OF STEEL STABILITY () ON

THE EMBRITTLEMENT INDEX (E.I.)


EFFECT OF MARTENSITE FORMED AT LOW

TEMPERATURE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION



SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR FUELLING

CONNECTORS

  • Hydrogen compatible materials for parts

    exposed to high pressure hydrogen

  • Non hydrogen compatible materials only for :

  • Material not exposed to hydrogen

  • Material used at a low enough stress

  • If a risk analysis shows that the failure has

    no consequence on the safe use

  • If the connector is only used for a short

    period (to be checked by fatigue test)


CONCLUSION

The fuelling connector is a critical part for the

dispensing line

This equipment is exposed during service to

very severe conditions

We have indicated how to select the right

materials (test methods and design

considerations)


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