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Chapter 2: Data Manipulation. Chapter 2: Data Manipulation. 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.2 Machine Language 2.3 Program Execution. Computer Architecture. Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor Arithmetic/Logic unit versus Control unit

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chapter 2 data manipulation
Chapter 2: Data Manipulation
  • 2.1 Computer Architecture
  • 2.2 Machine Language
  • 2.3 Program Execution
computer architecture
Computer Architecture
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor
    • Arithmetic/Logic unit versus Control unit
    • Registers : temporary storage units within the CPU that hold data being processed and are very easily accessible by CPU. Two types of Registers
      • General purpose : Can be used for any task
      • Special purpose : Used for special task e.g Program Counter ( PC) and Instruction Register (IR)
  • Bus
  • Motherboard
bus and its types
Bus and its types

A bus connects parts of the CPU to one another. It also links the CPU to the various components of the system board.

There are three types of buses:

Data Bus

Address Bus

Control Bus

von neumann stored program concept
Von Neumann Stored Program Concept

A program can be encoded as bit patterns and stored in main memory. From there, the CPU can then extract the instructions and execute them. In turn, the program to be executed can be altered easily.

  • Machine instruction: An instruction (or command) encoded as a bit pattern recognizable by the CPU
  • Machine language: The set of all instructions recognized by a machine
machine instruction types
Machine Instruction Types
  • Data Transfer: copy data from one location to another
  • Arithmetic/Logic: use existing bit patterns to compute a new bit patterns
  • Control: direct the execution of the program
data transfer instructions
Data Transfer Instructions

Load : To fetch data from Main Memory

Store : To save data into Main Memory

Move: To transfer data from register to register

arithmetic logical instructions
Arithmetic / Logical Instructions

Add / Sub / Mult / Div / Mod


arithmetic logic operations
Arithmetic/Logic Operations
  • Logic: AND, OR, XOR
    • Masking
  • Rotate and Shift: circular shift, logical shift, arithmetic shift
  • Arithmetic: add, subtract, multiply, divide
    • Precise action depends on how the values are encoded (two’s complement versus floating-point).
what is a high level language and machine language
What is a High Level Language and Machine Language
  • A High Level Language is easily understood by human beings
  • A Machine Language Instruction is in Binary format easily understood by the Machine / Computer
  • Difference ??
  • One High Level Language Instruction gets translated into Many Machine Level Instructions thus taking more time to execute
  • If I write in High Level Language
  • a:= b+c
  • It gets translated into 4 machine level instructions:
      • Fetch b
      • Fetch c
      • Add b and c
      • Store their result in a
difference between pc and ir
Difference Between PC and IR
  • Program counter (PC) :
  • It contains the address of the next instruction to be executed
  • Instruction Register:
  • It contains the Instruction that is currently being executed by the CPU
parts of a machine instruction
Parts of a Machine Instruction
  • Op-code: Specifies which operation to execute
  • Operand: Gives more detailed information about the operation
    • Interpretation of operand varies depending on op-code
program execution
Program Execution
  • Controlled by two special-purpose registers
    • Program counter: address of next instruction
    • Instruction register: current instruction
  • Machine Cycle
    • Fetch
    • Decode
    • Execute