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chapter 1 breakfast foods and sandwiches
CHAPTER 1BREAKFAST FOODS AND SANDWICHES

http://www.coursesmart.com/bookshelf

http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_nra_foundations_1/154/39652/10151013.cw/index.html

http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_nra_foundations_2/

what is pasteurization 6
What is Pasteurization? (6)
  • When milk is heated to kill microorganisms that cause spoilage and disease without effecting its nutritional value.
what is homogenization 6
What is Homogenization? (6)
  • Milk is strained through very fine holes to break down fat and then is blended into ne fluid.
how much fat is in the following milk items 8
How much fat is in the following milk items: (8)
  • SKIM MILK – Less than 0.5%
  • WHOLE MILK – At least 3%
  • CONDENSED MILK – At least 8.5%
please explain lactose intolerance 9
Please explain lactose intolerance. (9)
  • People who are lactose intolerant can’t easily digest lactose, which is a sugar found in dairy products. Undigested lactose moving through the body can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as gas, bloating, nausea, diarrhea and stomach pain.
how much fat is in the following types of cream 11
How much fat is in the following types of cream: (11)
  • HALF AND HALF – 10.5 to 18%
  • HEAVY CREAM – 36 to 38%
how is butter made 11
How is butter made? (11)
  • Butter is made by mixing cream containing between 30 percent and 40 percent milk fat at high speed.
what is one benefit of using margarine 12
What is one benefit of using margarine? (12)
  • It has a higher smoke point than butter.
slide12
Is it true that one of the advantages of using margarine is that it is a lot lower in fat that butter? (12)
  • Margarine is not much lower in fat than butter.
where and when was oleomargarine first made 13
Where and when was oleomargarine first made? (13)
  • It was first made in France in 1870.
what is the optimum storage temperature for cheese 17
What is the optimum storage temperature for cheese? (17)
  • 35 to 45 degrees at a high relative humidity.
what are the 4 parts of an egg 17
What are the 4 parts of an egg? (17)
  • Outer shell
  • White (albumen)
  • Yolk
  • Chalazae
what does the chalazae do 17
What does the chalazae do? (17)
  • It is the membrane that holds the yolk in place.
the air temperature of a truck delivering eggs should not exceed what temperature 22
The air temperature of a truck delivering eggs should not exceed what temperature? (22)
  • 45 degrees
what is a shirred egg 26
What is a shirred egg? (26)
  • A variety of baked egg
how do you poach an egg 27 4 steps
How do you poach an egg? (27) 4 steps
  • Combine water, salt, and vinegar in a shallow skillet or pan and bring it to a simmer.
  • Break the egg into a clean cup and slide the egg carefully into the poaching water. Cook until the whites are set and opaque.
  • Remove the eggs from the water with a slotted spoon and blot them on an absorbent towel.
  • Trim, if desired, and serve hot.
what is a quiche 32
What is a quiche? (32)
  • A savory egg custard baked in a crust
what are pooled eggs 34
What are pooled eggs? (34)
  • Eggs that are cracked open and combined in a container
what is a crepe 39
What is a crepe? (39)
  • A very thin pancake-type item with a high egg content
slide33
What is sliced bread dipped in an egg and milk mixture that is often seasoned lightly with cinnamon and nutmeg? (40)
  • French toast
what are the 3 ingredients in a hash mixture 42
What are the 3 ingredients in a hash mixture? (42)
  • A mixture of chopped meat (fresh or smoked), potatoes and onions
slide39
Which cold sandwich is served on a long, sliced roll with several types of cheese, meat, lettuce, tomato, onion, and other toppings? (55)
  • Submarine
please describe what a wrap is 55
Please describe what a wrap is. (55)
  • They are made on any type of flat bread – for example tortillas, cracker bread or rice paper wrappers – and spear with a hot or cold sandwich filling. It is then rolled up.
what is a multi decker sandwich 55
What is a multi-decker sandwich? (55)
  • A sandwich with more then 2 slices of bread with several ingredients in the filling.
tell me about a canap 55
Tell me about a canapé. (55)
  • It is an open faced cold sandwich used as a type of hors d’oeuvre
according to figure 1 36 what can be used to transfer a pizza in and out of the oven 61
According to Figure 1.36, what can be used to transfer a pizza in and out of the oven? (61)
  • Pizza Peel
what is nutrition 80
What is nutrition? (80)
  • Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how they nourish the body.
what are nutrients 80
What are nutrients? (80)
  • They are components of food that are needed for the body to function
why does the body need nutrients 80
Why does the body need nutrients? (80)
  • To provide energy
  • To build and repair cells
  • To keep the different systems in the body working smoothly
slide52
According to the fast facts, what are the two things that your body needs on a daily basis to stay healthy? (81)
  • Carbohydrates
  • Water
what are the six basic nutrients that are important to the body 83
What are the six basic nutrients that are important to the body? (83)
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids (fats)
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water
what does fiber do 84
What does fiber do? (84)
  • Fiber promotes digestive health and regularity.
what are phytochemicals 84
What are phytochemicals? (84)
  • They are chemicals that aid the body in fighting or preventing disease. They are also known as phytonutrients.
what is the name of a very important simple sugar that is the primary source of energy 87
What is the name of a very important simple sugar that is the primary source of energy? (87)
  • Glucose
what are hormones 87
What are hormones? (87)
  • Hormones are special chemical messengers made by the bodies that regulate different body functions.
tell me about complex carbohydrates 87
Tell me about complex carbohydrates. (87)
  • They contain long chains that include many glucose modules. They are found in plant based foods such as grains, legumes and vegetables.
good sources of carbohydrates include the following 88
Good sources of carbohydrates include the following: (88)
  • Dry beans and peas
  • Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes and corn
  • Rice
  • Grits
  • Pasta
  • Oatmeal
  • Cornmeal
  • Breads and Cereals
what are the two types of fiber tell me a little bit about each one of them
What are the two types of fiber? Tell me a little bit about each one of them.
  • Soluble Fiber – It dissolves in water. When we eat foods that contain soluble fiber, we feel full for a longer time. Soluble fiber also slows down the release of sugar in the blood and helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood.
  • Insoluble Fiber – It does not dissolve in water. It acts like a stiff broom to clean and scrub the digestive tract so that we can eliminate waste from our systems more easily.
what 5 functions do fats perform in the body 89
What 5 functions do fats perform in the body? (89)
  • Carrying vitamins A, D, E and K throughout the body
  • Cushioning the bodies' vital organs
  • Protecting the body from extreme temperatures
  • Providing a reserve of energy (when the body stores it)
  • Supplying nutrients called essential fatty acids
what does hydrogenation do 90
What does hydrogenation do? (90)
  • Make liquid fats a solid
what is the disadvantage of hydrogenation 90
What is the disadvantage of hydrogenation? (90)
  • Fat processed this way are more harmful to your health
please explain the significance of e ssential fatty acids 90
Please explain the significance of essential fatty acids. (90)
  • They are used to make substances that regulate vital body functions, such as blood pressure, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and immune response.
please explain the significance of oxidation 90
Please explain the significance of oxidation. (90)
  • It is the process that causes fats to spoil or go rancid.
please explain the significance of cholesterol 90
Please explain the significance of Cholesterol. (90)
  • It is a white, waxy substance that is produced in your liver. In the body, cholesterol helps make such substances such as bile acids, vitamin D and hormones.
please explain the significance of trans fatty acids 90
Please explain the significance of trans fatty acids (90)
  • These are the result of taking a liquid fat and making it a solid through a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation of fat alters its physical properties and makes it stay fresh longer.
  • The disadvantage of hydrogenation is that it may be more harmful to a person’s health that saturated fat when it comes to the development of heart disease.
please give examples of foods that contain saturated fats 91
Please give examples of foods that contain saturated fats. (91)
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Dairy Products
  • Butter
  • Lard
  • Palm Oil
  • Palm Kernel Oil
  • Coconut Oil
please give examples of foods that contain monounsaturated fats 91
Please give examples of foods that contain monounsaturated fats. (91)
  • Olive Oil
  • Canola Oil
  • Peanut Oil
  • Avocado Oil
  • Nut Oils
please give examples of foods that contain polyunsaturated fats 91
Please give examples of foods that contain polyunsaturated fats. (91)
  • Safflower Oil
  • Sunflower Oil
  • Soybean Oil
  • Corn Oil
  • Cottonseed Oil
  • Sesame Oil
  • Fish Oils
what do proteins do 92
What do proteins do? (92)
  • They provide the building blocks, in the form of amino acids, that the body uses for a variety of things , including muscles, tissues, enzymes and hormones.
how many amino acids can be found in food 92
How many amino acids can be found in food? (92)
  • 22 amino acids can be found in food
how many essential amino acids are there and what is their significance 92
How many essential amino acids are there and what is their significance? (92)
  • There are 9 essential amino acids that must be obtained from food each day. The other amino acids can be produced in the body.
what is a complete protein 93
What is a complete protein? (93)
  • They contain all of the essential amino acids in the right amount
what is an incomplete protein 93
What is an incomplete protein? (93)
  • They lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
  • Foods from plant sources are incomplete amino acids.
what do vitamins do 94
What do vitamins do? (94)
  • They are needed to regulate metabolic processes such as digestion and the absorption of nutrients.
what 4 functions do water perform in the body 96
What 4 functions do water perform in the body? (96)
  • Helps with the digestion, absorption and transportation of nutrients
  • Helps eliminate waste through the kidneys, colon and lungs
  • Distributes heat throughout the body and allowing heat to be released through the skin by evaporation (sweating)
  • Lubricates joints and cushions tissues
what is digestion 98
What is digestion? (98)
  • The process of breaking down food into its simplest parts so that it can be absorbed
what are food additives 98
What are food additives? (98)
  • A substance or combination of substances present in food as a result of processing, production or packaging
why are food additives used 99
Why are food additives used? (99)
  • Improve flavor, color and texture
  • Retain nutritional value
  • Prevent spoilage
  • Extend shelf life
tell me about the diet of a vegetarian 100
Tell me about the diet of a vegetarian. (100)
  • They follow a strict diet an will not consume any of the following:
  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Poultry Products
tell me about the diet of a lacto vegetarian 100
Tell me about the diet of a lacto vegetarian. (100)
  • This person is a vegetarian, but they also eat dairy products
tell me about the diet of a lacto ovo vegetarian 100
Tell me about the diet of a lacto-ovo vegetarian (100)
  • A vegetarian who eats dairy products and eggs
tell me about the diet of a vegan 100
Tell me about the diet of a vegan. (100)
  • They follow the strictest diet an will not consume any of the following:
  • Dairy
  • Eggs
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Anything containing animal products or byproducts
what is ldl 104
What is LDL? (104)
  • The bad cholesterol
what is hdl 104
What is HDL? (104)
  • This is the good cholesterol. It takes excess cholesterol away and carries it back to the liver to be excreted.
slide100
What is the name of the condition where the body does not have the ability to regulated sugar properly? (104)
  • Diabetes
slide102
When cooking any food, remember that the lower the temperature and the shorter the cooking period will result in what? (112)
  • Less nutrient loss
what is portion control 117
What is portion control? (117)
  • Controlling the quantity of a particular food be using appropriate sized servings.
please tell me about the 4 kinds of salt give me a definition for each 123
Please tell me about the 4 kinds of salt. Give me a definition for each. (123)
  • Table salt – The most common
  • Kosher salt – It has a purer flavor than table salt. It is usually coarser with larger crystals. To substitute Kosher salt for table salt, use twice as much Kosher salt as called for in the recipe. It is the most common salt found in professional kitchens.
  • Sea salt – It is extracted from the ocean using evaporation techniques. It is usually not refined, so it contains additional minerals and other elements found in sea water, which affect the flavor.
  • Iodized salt – Table salt that has been refined with iodine as a nutritional supplement.
what is a low fat substitute for ground beef 125
What is a low fat substitute for ground beef? (125)
  • Ground sirloin
  • Ground turkey breast
  • Ground soy
what does the term organic mean 127
What does the term organic mean? (127)
  • To be produced without pesticides or synthetic fertilizers.
what is revenue 147
What is revenue? (147)
  • The income from sales before expenses
what is the definition of a cost 147
What is the definition of a cost? (147)
  • The price an operation pays out in the purchasing and preparation of its products or the providing of its service.
what are the 4 main categories of costs 147
What are the 4 main categories of costs? (147)
  • Food costs
  • Beverage costs
  • Labor costs
  • Overhead costs
what are 2 examples of controllable costs 149
What are 2 examples of controllable costs? (149)
  • Food cost
  • Hourly wage portion of labor cost
what is a fixed cost 151
What is a fixed cost? (151)
  • Costs that remain the same regardless of sales volume
what is an operating budget 151
What is an operating budget? (151)
  • A financial plan for a specific period of time
what is a forecast 152
What is a forecast? (152)
  • A perdition of sales levels or costs that will occur during a specific time period
forecasting revenue is usually determined by looking at what 2 things 152
Forecasting revenue is usually determined by looking at what 2 things? (152)
  • Historical data
  • Average sales per customer
how do you calculate the average sales per customer 152
How do you calculate the average sales per customer? (152)
  • Total dollars divided by the total number of customers
what does the sales history show 153
What does the sales history show? (153)
  • It is a record of the number of portions of every item sold on a menu
what is a production sheet 153
What is a production sheet? (153)
  • It is a list of all of the menu items that are going to be prepared for a given date.
the number of times a menu item is sold during a particular time period is known as what 153
The number of times a menu item is sold during a particular time period is known as what? (153)
  • Sales history
what is a profit and loss report 156
What is a profit and loss report? (156)
  • A compilation od sales and cost information for a specific period of time
list the 7 stages of the flow of food process 165 166
List the 7 stages of the flow of food process. (165-166)
  • Purchasing
  • Receiving
  • Storage
  • Issuing
  • Preparation
  • Cooking
  • Service
what is the definition of food cost 167
What is the definition of food cost? (167)
  • The actual dollar value of the food used by an operation during a certain period
what is inventory 167
What is inventory? (167)
  • This represents the dollar value of a food product in storage and can be expressed in terms of units, values or both
define opening inventory 167
Define opening inventory. (167)
  • The physical inventory at the beginning of a given period (such as the month of April)
define closing inventory 167
Define closing inventory. (167)
  • The physical inventory at the end of a given period.
what is the formula for calculating food cost percentage 168
What is the formula for calculating food cost percentage? (168)
  • Total food cost / Sales = Food Cost Percentage
what are the 2 methods used to determine the cost of ingredients in a standard recipe 170 171
What are the 2 methods used to determine the cost of ingredients in a standard recipe? (170-171)
  • As purchased
  • Edible portion
what is as purchased method 170
What is as-purchased method? (170)
  • It is used to cost an ingredient at the purchase price before and trim or waste is taken into account.
what is the edible portion method 171
What is the edible portion method? (171)
  • It is used to cost an ingredient after trimming and removing waste so that only the usable portion of the item is reflected.
what is a food production chart 176
What is a food production chart? (176)
  • It is a form that shows how much product should be produced by the kitchen during a given meal period.
what is a sales history used for 176
What is a sales history used for? (176)
  • It is critical in helping management forecast how many portions of each menu item to produce on a given day.
what is contribution margin 178
What is contribution margin? (178)
  • The portion of dollars that a particular menu item contributes to overall profits.
slide139
How do you calculate contribution margin? What is the contribution margin if a menu item sells for 15.00 and has cost of 33% to make?
what is the straight markup method 178
What is the straight markup method? (178)
  • Multiply raw food costs by a predetermined fraction
what is the average check method 178
What is the average check method? (178)
  • The total revenue is divided by the number of seats, average seat turnover and days open in one year.
what 4 factors affect labor costs 187
What 4 factors affect labor costs? (187)
  • Business volume
  • Employee turnover
  • Quality standards
  • Operating standards
how do you calculate employee turnover 189
How do you calculate employee turnover? (189)
  • It is the number of employees hired to fill one position in a year’s time
what is listed on a master schedule 190
What is listed on a master schedule? (190)
  • It lists no names. It just lists the positions and the number of employees in those positions.
what is a chart that shows the employee s names and the days and times they are to work 191
What is a chart that shows the employee’s names and the days and times they are to work? (191)
  • Crew Schedule
list 3 things a good staff contingency plan should include 192
List 3 things a good staff contingency plan should include. (192)
  • Cross training employees
  • Identifying shift leaders
  • Having on call employees
what is cross training 192
What is cross training? (192)
  • Training employees to handle responsibilities in areas of the operation aside from their primary work responsibilities
explain the process of having on call employees 192
Explain the process of having on call employees. (192)
  • A certain number of employees must call their operation at a predetermined time to find out whether they have to work that day.
what is the best time for restaurants and foodservice operations to receive deliveries 199
What is the best time for restaurants and foodservice operations to receive deliveries? (199)
  • When the operation is slow
how often should meat be ordered and delivered to an operation 200
How often should meat be ordered and delivered to an operation? (200)
  • At least 2 or 3 times a week
slide152
What is the document from a vendor that lists such details as items purchased, date of order, purchaser and sales price? (201)
  • Invoice
what does it mean to take a physical inventory 204
What does it mean to take a physical inventory? (204)
  • To count and record the number of each item in the storeroom
what does a garnish do 222
What does a garnish do? (222)
  • Enhances the appearance of the salad while also complimenting the overall taste
what are the 5 main types of salads 224
What are the 5 main types of salads? (224)
  • Green – tossed and composed
  • Bound
  • Vegetables
  • Fruit
  • Combination
what are bound salads bound together with 225
What are bound salads bound together with? (225)
  • Some type of heavy dressing such as mayonnaise
what are the cooked primary ingredients in a bound salad 225
What are the cooked primary ingredients in a bound salad? (225)
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Egg
  • Potato
  • Pasta
  • Rice
how should you handle garnishes that might become soggy or discolored 228
How should you handle garnishes that might become soggy or discolored? (228)
  • Add them just prior to serving
  • Examples include croutons or avocadoes
slide166
What are the two fruits that cannot be added to gelatin raw or they will not allow the gelatin to set? (232)
  • Raw pineapple
  • Raw papaya
slide167
Fruits such as apples and bananas will discolor after being peeled or cut. What do you need to do to them to keep it from happening? (233)
  • Dip them in a combination of lemon juice and water to keep their fresh appearance. Do not soak the fruit in the mixture or it will ruin the flavor of the fruit.
what is a starter salad 234
What is a starter salad? (234)
  • They are served as an appetizer to the main meal. They are smaller in portion size and consists of light, fresh, crisp ingredients to stimulate the appetite.
what is an intermezzo salad 235
What is an intermezzo salad? (235)
  • It is intended to be a palate cleanser after a rich dinner and before dessert.
slide171
The proper way to store loose greens is with dampened paper towels and between which 2 temperatures? (237)
  • 36 to 41 degrees
slide172
You cannot store greens with tomatoes or apples because they will wilt due to what gas they emit? (237)
  • Ethylene Gas
what is vinaigrette 244
What is vinaigrette? (244)
  • The simplest form of salad dressing and is made from oil and vinegar
what is a suspension 244
What is a suspension? (244)
  • A temporary mixture of ingredients that eventually separates back into its unique parts
tell me about balsamic vinegar 245
Tell me about Balsamic vinegar. (245)
  • It is a special wine vinegar aged in wooden barrels for 4 to 50 years. It has a dark brown color and sweet taste. It has a sticky consistency due to high sugar content
what is an emulsion 245
What is an emulsion? (245)
  • A mixture of ingredients that permanently stays together.
what is an emulsifier 246
What is an emulsifier? (246)
  • An ingredient that can permanently bind dissimilar ingredients, such as oil and vinegar, together on a molecular level. Eggs are good emulsifiers.
how do you make mayonnaise 250 6 steps
How do you make mayonnaise? (250) 6 Steps
  • Place egg yolks in an appropriate sized stainess steel bowl.
  • Add dry ingredients and whisk until frothy and well blended.
  • Drizzle oil slowly into mixture, whisk rapidly.
  • As mixture thickens, slowly alternate adding small amounts of vinegar or lemon juice and oil until all are used.
  • Check seasoning.
  • Serve the dressing at once or refrigerate it.
what is dip 251
What is dip? (251)
  • A hot and cold mixture that accompanies certain food items, with the purpose of complementing or enhancing the food’s flavor.
tell me about hummus 252
Tell me about Hummus. (252)
  • This is made with chick peas, garlic and tahini (from the Middle East)
what is the first thing that a person needs to do purchasing 288
What is the first thing that a person needs to do purchasing? (288)
  • Make sure that an operation has enough product to sell.
slide193
What is the purchasing document that describes the characteristics of products and services that an operation wants to buy? (288)
  • Product specifications
there are many tools available to help purchasers buy the right amount of product they are 288
There are many tools available to help purchasers buy the right amount of product. They are: (288)
  • Customer count histories
  • Popularity index of items sold
  • Vendor delivery schedule
  • Availability of items from vendors
  • Recognizing outside influences that might affect an operation
what is a customer count forecast 289
What is a customer count forecast? (289)
  • This is the number of customers expected for a given time period
slide197

According to Table 5.1, there are 3 main parts to the channel of distribution. Please let me know what they are and give me examples of each

primary sources
Primary Sources
  • Farmers
  • Ranchers
  • Manufacturers
  • Distillers
intermediaries
Intermediaries
  • Wholesalers
  • Distributors
  • Suppliers
retailers
Retailers
  • Restaurants
  • School cafeterias
  • Caterers
please explain what a kickback is 301 302
Please explain what a kickback is. (301-302)
  • Money or other goods received by a person for purchasing from a specific vendor
please list the 3 reasons why a foodservice operation would purchase ready made products 313
Please list the 3 reasons why a foodservice operation would purchase ready made products? (313)
  • Consistency– A buyer knows exactly what they are getting.
  • Reduces prep time and labor costs
  • Reduces the need for certain types of equipment and storage space that might be otherwise necessary to make something from scratch
why would a chef conduct a make or buy analysis 313
Why would a chef conduct a make or buy analysis? (313)
  • To decide whether it makes better financial sense to make the item from scratch or to purchase a ready made product.
list 3 elements of production records 314
List 3 elements of production records. (314)
  • Production sheets
  • Daily food cost sheets
  • Sales mix records
what is the term used for the ideal amount of an item to have on inventory at any given time 316
What is the term used for the ideal amount of an item to have on inventory at any given time? (316)
  • Par stock
slide211
What is a legally binding written document that details exactly what the buyer is ordering from the vendor? (316)
  • Purchase order
in a large operation what form does a manager need to compete to purchase a new refrigerator 318
In a large operation, what form does a manager need to compete to purchase a new refrigerator? (318)
  • Requisition form
as a product moves through the channel of distribution what 5 factors affect its value 318 319
As a product moves through the channel of distribution, what 5 factors affect its value? (318-319)
  • Time value
  • Form value
  • Place value
  • Transportation value
  • Service value
slide214
What is the process of inspecting, accepting, and, in some cases, rejecting deliveries of goods and services? (326-329)
  • Receiving
slide215
What are food products that are sold or distributed in a form that will spoil or decay within a limited period of time? (329)
  • Perishable products
what are the 2 common methods for purchasing nonperishable foods 334
What are the 2 common methods for purchasing nonperishable foods? (334)
  • Physical inventory method
  • Perpetual inventory method
quality grade of meat measures what 353
Quality Grade of meat measures what? (353)
  • The flavor characteristics of meat products.
yield grades of meat measure what 353
Yield Grades of meat measure what? (353)
  • The edible portion or usable meat
according to table 6 1 please tell me about the prime grade of meat 353
According to Table 6.1, please tell me about the Prime grade of meat. (353)
  • This is the highest quality available for beef, veal, and lamb. Usually found in only the finest restaurants, hotels, and markets. A lot of marbling and a cover of firm fat, which enables flavor and juiciness. Only a small percentage of beef products meet this standard.
what are primal cuts of meat 356
What are primal cuts of meat? (356)
  • The primary divisions of meat produced by the initial butchering of animal carcasses.
what is kosher meat 360
What is Kosher meat? (360)
  • Meat that is specifically slaughtered to comply with Jewish dietary laws.
what is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions such as roasts or steaks 364 367
What is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions, such as roasts or steaks? (364-367)
  • Fabrication
what 5 factors should be considered when purchasing meat 364 367
What 5 factors should be considered when purchasing meat? (364-367)
  • Cost
  • Freshness
  • Fat Content
  • Equipment
  • Vendors
what is marbling 365
What is marbling? (365)
  • Lines of fat within the lean flesh portion of the meat.
what are the 3 dry heat methods of cooking for cooking high quality tender cuts of meat 368
What are the 3 dry heat methods of cooking for cooking high quality, tender cuts of meat? (368)
  • Broiling
  • Grilling
  • Roasting
what do you do to strips of meat before they are saut ed and why 369
What do you do to strips of meat before they are sautéed and why? (369)
  • Lightly dust them with flour and be sure to shake off any excess flour before adding the item to the pan. Flour helps the meat retain moisture and promotes even browning.
how long should meat be allowed to rest after cooking and before slicing 372
How long should meat be allowed to rest after cooking and before slicing? (372)
  • 15 to 30 minutes
why should cooked meat be given time to rest before slicing 372
Why should cooked meat be given time to rest before slicing? (372)
  • This allows less juice to be lost during carving
which type of poultry meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster 380
Which type of poultry meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster? (380)
  • White meat
tell me about cooking dark meat 381
Tell me about cooking dark meat. (381)
  • It requires more time to cook.
list the 3 types of poultry fabrication 382
List the 3 types of poultry fabrication. (382)
  • Disjointing
  • Boning
  • Cutting the bird into pieces
list the 4 reasons why you should reject a delivery of poultry 385
List the 4 reasons why you should reject a delivery of poultry? (385)
  • Color: Purple or green discoloration around the neck: dark wing tips (red tips are acceptable)
  • Texture: Stickiness: under the wings and around the joints
  • Odor: Abnormal, unpleasant odor
  • Freezer burn: Any signs of frost, ice or leakage from the package
please explain what it is to truss a poultry item 387
Please explain what it is to truss a poultry item. (387)
  • The legs and wings are tied to the bird’s body.
when roasting why area bird s legs and wings tied to the bird s body 387
When roasting, why area bird’s legs and wings tied to the bird’s body? (387)
  • So it cooks evenly and stays moist
what is a shellfish 397
What is a shellfish? (397)
  • Shellfish have an outer shell but no backbone and live primarily in salt water.
what are the 3 categories of shellfish 397
What are the 3 categories of shellfish? (397)
  • Crustaceans
  • Mollusks
  • Cephalopods
list the 6 market forms of fin fish 399
List the 6 market forms of fin fish. (399)
  • Whole or round
  • Drawn
  • Dressed
  • Butterfly fillet
  • Fish fillet
  • Steak
iqf is an acronym for what 400
IQF is an acronym for what? (400)
  • Individually quick frozen
what kind of food is fabricated using techniques such as scaling trimming and gutting 401
What kind of food is fabricated using techniques such as scaling, trimming and gutting? (401)
  • Fin Fish
to be acceptable fresh fish must meet the following 5 criteria 402
To be acceptable, fresh fish must meet the following 5 criteria: (402)
  • Color: Bright red gills; bright shiny skin
  • Texture: Firm flesh that springs back when touched
  • Odor: Mild ocean or seaweed smell
  • Eyes: Bright, clear and full
  • Packaging: Product should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice
what is fumet 407
What is fumet? (407)
  • A rich fish stock made with wine
what is bouillabaisse 408
What is bouillabaisse? (408)
  • A French seafood stew made with assorted fish and shellfish, onions, tomatoes, white wine, olive oil, garlic, saffron and herbs.
list the 3 main types of sausages 416
List the 3 main types of sausages. (416)
  • Fresh sausage
  • Smoked or cooked sausages
  • Dried or hard sausages
what does garde manger refer to 416
What does garde manger refer to? (416)
  • The department typically found in a classical brigade system kitchen and/or the chef who is responsible for the preparation of cold foods, including salads and salad dressings, cold appetizers, charcuterie items and similar dished.
bucyrus ohio is the bratwurst capital of the world can you tell me what bratwurst is 416 417
Bucyrus, Ohio is the Bratwurst capital of the world. Can you tell me what Bratwurst is? (416-417)
  • Smoked and cooked sausage
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What is a mixture of lean ground meat and fat emulsified in a food grinder and pushed through a sieve to create a smooth paste? (417)
  • Forcemeat
what are the 2 main types of forcemeat 417
What are the 2 main types of forcemeat? (417)
  • Straight forcemeat
  • Country style forcemeat
what is marketing 434
What is marketing? (434)
  • The process of communicating a businesses message to its market.
what are the 3 primary elements of the contemporary marketing mix 436
What are the 3 primary elements of the contemporary marketing mix? (436)
  • Product service mix
  • Presentation mix
  • Communication mix
what is the way in which an operation tells its customers about its products and services 437
What is the way in which an operation tells its customers about its products and services? (437)
  • Communication mix
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Which contemporary marketing mix consists of all the elements that make the operation look unique? (437)
  • Presentation mix
what are the 5 steps to a successful marketing plan 438
What are the 5 steps to a successful marketing plan? (438)
  • Research the market
  • Establish objectives
  • Develop a market strategy
  • Implement an action plan
  • Evaluate/modify the action plan as needed
a swot analysis looks at what 4 things 442
A SWOT analysis looks at what 4 things? (442)
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
what is the experimental method of marketing 448
What is the experimental method of marketing? (448)
  • An operation might try out a product for a limited time or with a limited group of people
what is the observational method of marketing 448
What is the observational method of marketing? (448)
  • This involves observing how customers react in a natural setting towards a product
explain the survey method of marketing 448
Explain the survey method of marketing. (448)
  • In this method, a marketer gathers information using questionnaires.
please explain sampling 449
Please explain sampling. (449)
  • This involves testing a product with a specific, small group, sometimes called a focus group.
what does mass marketing do 450
What does mass marketing do? (450)
  • Treats everyone in the market as having the same wants and needs.
what does target marketing do 450
What does target marketing do? (450)
  • Treats people as different from each other and tries to make a focused appeal to a distinct group of customers.
what is breaking down a large market into smaller groups of similar individuals called 450 453
What is breaking down a large market into smaller groups of similar individuals called? (450-453)
  • Market segmentation
what are demographics 450
What are demographics? (450)
  • This refers to the ways in which researchers categorize or group people.
what are the 4 ways an operation can segment the market 451 452
What are the 4 ways an operation can segment the market? (451-452)
  • Demographic segmentation
  • Geographic segmentation
  • Product usage segmentation
  • Lifestyle segmentation
the main goal of target marketing is to 452
The main goal of target marketing is to… (452)
  • Target marketing helps you to focus your promotion and advertising efforts on specific groups.
a promotional mix may include some of these 5 components 457
A promotional mix may include some of these 5 components: (457)
  • Advertising
  • Sales promotion
  • Personal selling
  • Public relations
  • Direct marketing
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What is it called when an operation pays to present or promote its products, services or identity? (457)
  • Advertising
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Our white bread normally sells for $2.50 a loaf. By selling it to people who use other services in the building, we are using what type of market communication? (457)

  • Sales promotion
what is a premium 459
What is a premium? (459)
  • Free or reduced price merchandise, such as a pen or cup that shows the name and location of the restaurant, usually given away or sold for a reduced price with the purchase of a food item.
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What is it called when 2 or more sponsors develop complementary promotions or offer complementary promotional Materials? (461)
  • Cooperative sales promotion
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What is interacting with the people in the local area to create awareness of and trust for an operation? (461)
  • Community relations
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What is a packet of information given to media representatives to answer potential questions about a business or organization called? (462)
  • Press release
what are some examples of promotional materials you do not need to give definitions 460
What are some examples of promotional materials? You DO NOT need to give definitions. (460)
  • Signage
  • Flyers
  • Premiums
  • Carryout and door hanger menus
  • Appeal and brand name merchandise
  • Point of Purchase materials
  • Merchandising materials
  • Direct mail
  • Email
how are most menus organized 475
How are most menus organized? (475)
  • In the order in which they are actually eaten
      • Appetizers
      • Soup
      • Salad
      • Sandwiches
      • Entrees
      • Vegetables
      • Desserts
when planning a menu what 6 things do managers and chefs need to keep in mind 476
When planning a menu, what 6 things do managers and chefs need to keep in mind? (476)
  • Physical layout of the facility
  • Skills of personnel
  • Availability of ingredients
  • Target market’s wants and needs
  • Target market’s expectations
  • Profit margin
what 2 purposes does menu pricing serve 482 485
What 2 purposes does menu pricing serve (482-485)
  • To provide information to customers
  • To determine profitability
how do you calculate the cost of an item using the food percentage method 483
How do you calculate the cost of an item using the food percentage method? (483)
  • Item food cost / Food cost percentage = Menu price
what are the 4 classifications that come from menu engineering 490
What are the 4 classifications that come from menu engineering? (490)
  • Star
  • Plow horse
  • Puzzle
  • Dog
what does it mean when a menu item is called a star 490
What does it mean when a menu item is called a star? (490)
  • These items are both popular and profitable
what does it mean when a menu item is called a puzzle 490
What does it mean when a menu item is called a puzzle? (490)
  • These items are unpopular but very profitable.
what does it mean when a menu item is called a dog 491
What does it mean when a menu item is called a dog? (491)
  • These items are unpopular and unprofitable.
what is it when a menu item is referred to as a plow horse 490
What is it when a menu item is referred to as a plow horse? (490)
  • These items are popular but less profitable.
shortenings and fats do what for baked goods 504
Shortenings and fats do what for baked goods? (504)
  • Fats make baked goods moist, add flavor and keep baked items fresh longer.
this is the process that occurs when sugar is heated in bakery products 505
This is the process that occurs when sugar is heated in bakery products. (505)
  • The sugar will turn a light brown color.
this is a mixture of baking soda and an acid added with an inactive material such as starch 506
This is a mixture of baking soda and an acid added with an inactive material such as starch. (506)
  • Baking powder
what does sifting do 509
What does sifting do? (509)
  • Sifting adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioners sugar. Sifting also removes lumps and filters out impurities
why do we knead bread dough 515
Why do we knead bread dough? (515)
  • It is important because it develops the gluten
what are the 2 primary methods used to make yeast breads 515 516
What are the 2 primary methods used to make yeast breads? (515-516)
  • Straight dough method
  • Sponge method
sourdough is made with a starter what ingredients are in a starter and how is it made 516
Sourdough is made with a starter. What ingredients are in a starter and how is it made? (516)
  • Water
  • Yeast
  • All purpose flour
  • These items are combined and fermented (usually overnight) until it has a sour smell.
what is proof 516
What is proof? (516)
  • Rise for a second time
what are the 10 steps in making yeast bread 518
What are the 10 steps in making yeast bread? (518)
  • Scale ingredients
  • Mix and knead ingredients
  • Fermentation
  • Punch down the dough
  • Portioning
  • Rounding
  • Shaping
  • Proofing
  • Baking
  • Cooling and storing
what are the 4 methods for preparing quick bread and cake 525
What are the 4 methods for preparing quick bread and cake? (525)
  • Creaming
  • Foaming
  • Straight Dough
  • Two Stage
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Which method for preparing quick bread and batter mixes fat and sugar together to produce a very fine crumb and a dense, rich texture? (525)

  • Creaming method
what are the 7 types of icing
What are the 7 types of icing?
  • Buttercream
  • Foam
  • Fondant
  • Fudge
  • Ganache
  • Glaze
  • Royal Icing
why are steamed puddings more stable than dessert souffl s 528 529
Why are steamed puddings more stable than dessert soufflés? (528-529)
  • Because of the greater percentage of egg and sugar in the batter
when making 3 2 1 pie dough it is 533
When making 3-2-1 pie dough, it is… (533)
  • 3 Parts Flour
  • 2 Parts Shortening
  • 1 Part Water
what are the 7 types of cookies 539
What are the 7 types of cookies? (539)
  • Bagged
  • Bar
  • Dropped
  • Icebox
  • Molded
  • Rolled
  • Sheet
what is the best way to store chocolate 546
What is the best way to store chocolate? (546)
  • In a cool, dry, well ventilated area.
why is chocolate tempered 547 548
Why is chocolate tempered? (547-548)
  • So that the chocolate will melt evenly
what is the mission of the epa 575
What is the mission of the EPA? (575)
  • Their mission is to protect human health and the environment.
please define sustainability 575
Please define sustainability. (575)
  • The practices that meet current resource needs without compromising the ability to meet future needs.
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What percentage of the United States relies on groundwater for its public supply to household and businesses? (575)
  • 40%
please define fossil fuels and give some examples 586
Please define fossil fuels and give some examples. (586)
  • Fossil fuels are fuels that are formed from plant or animal remains buried deep in the earth. Examples of fossil fuels include natural gas, coal, propane and petroleum
what are the 5 types of renewable energy 587
What are the 5 types of renewable energy? (587)
  • Water(hydropower)
  • Wind
  • Solar
  • Geothermal – Using the heat inside the earth. People can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generate electricity.
  • Biomass – Biomass contains stored energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Examples include wood, crops, manure and some types or garbage.
what is a brownfield site 595 596
What is a brownfield site? (595-596)
  • A previously abandoned industrial site that, once cleaned up, can be repurposed for commercial business use.
what is repurposed food 602
What is repurposed food? (602)
  • This is food that customers did not eat, but the back of the house staff prepared, cooked, cooled and held safely. Most of the time, repurposed food was prepared in advance for customers but not sold.
name 2 ways in which an operation can reuse food that was prepared but not sold 602
Name 2 ways in which an operation can reuse food that was prepared but not sold. (602)
  • Serve the food in its original format
  • Repurpose food into another format
  • Donate food to local rescue programs
what 3 types of efforts can help an operation to reduce total waste 602 607
What 3 types of efforts can help an operation to reduce total waste? (602-607)
  • Reducing
  • Reusing
  • Recycling
how does single stream recycling work in an operation 608
How does single stream recycling work in an operation? (608)
  • Recyclable items all go into one waste bin, rather than being separated, and a recycling sorts them later.
what is composting 609
What is composting? (609)
  • A natural form of recycling that occurs when organic materials decompose (or Composts) to form organic fertilizer.
what is meant by the concept of food miles 615
What is meant by the concept of food miles? (615)
  • The amount of miles it takes to grow, process, package and sell.
what is bycatch 618
What is bycatch? (618)
  • Catching fish other than those that were targeted.
what is the term used when seafood species are caught at a faster rate than they can reproduce 618
What is the term used when seafood species are caught at a faster rate than they can reproduce (618)
  • Overfishing
what is aquaculture 619
What is aquaculture? (619)
  • The production of seafood under controlled conditions
what is the difference between sun grown and shade grown coffee 623 624
What is the difference between sun grown and shade grown coffee? (623-624)
  • Shade grown coffee is more expensive.
what are organic foods 626
What are organic foods? (626)
  • Foods that have not been produced with the use of pesticides or synthetic fertilizers.
what are the items that you would find in a new england boiled dinner 639
What are the items that you would find in a New England boiled dinner? (639)
  • Corned beef brisket
  • Boiled potatoes
  • Cabbage
  • Onions
  • Carrots
  • Parsnips
please describe new england clam chowder 640
Please describe New England clam chowder. (640)
  • A thick clam soup, creamy, white and mild.
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Which group of people arrived in the Midwest in the 1700s and introduced the tradition of serving meals family style? (642-643)
  • Germans
midwestern foods are from the central part of the country and are sometimes called by 2 names 643
Midwestern foods are from the central part of the country and are sometimes called by 2 names. (643)
  • Meat and potatoes OR
  • Comfort foods
please give me example of 2 cajun dished name them and describe them 647
Please give me example of 2 Cajun dished. Name them and describe them. (647)
  • Jambalaya – A spicy rice dish with chicken, Andouille sausage, shrimp, catfish, trinity, other vegetables, herbs, broth and seasonings.
  • Andouille – A pork sausage with a strong, smoky, garlicky taste.
  • Gumbo – A hearty soup with trinity and shrimp, thickened with brown roux containing okra and a thickener made from fried sassafras leaves.
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What is the cuisine that began by blending French grand cuisine principles with the cooking techniques of enslaved Africans? (646)
  • Creole
what does gmo mean 648
What does GMO mean? (648)
  • Genetically modified organism
what is the difference between tex mex and cal mex southwestern foods 650
What is the difference between Tex-Mex and Cal-Mex Southwestern foods? (650)
  • In Cal-Mex, meats are shredded, while in Tex-Mex the meats are generally ground.
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What style of cooking and presenting food combines the ingredients and techniques of Asian and West Coast cuisine? (652)
  • Fusion cuisine
what is masa and how is it made 656
What is masa and how is it made? (656)
  • Corn that is chemically treated with alkali to remove the husks and create acorn meal.
what is mole 657
What is mole? (657)
  • It is a sauce or mixture and can sometimes be used as a suffix on words to describe the sauce.
what is curtido 664
What is Curtido? (664)
  • A typical Central American relish that is made from cabbage, onions and carrots in vinegar. It originated in El Salvador.
what is gallo pinto 664
What is Gallo pinto? (664)
  • It is a mix of white rice and black beans, cooked separately and then fried together in coconut oil. The blend of color makes it look similar to the markings on a local variety of hen.
in jamaica what is the name of the dry spice rub that is common for their country 668 669
In Jamaica, what is the name of the dry spice rub that is common for their country? (668-669)
  • Jerk spice
name 2 ways in which sofrito is commonly used 670
Name 2 ways in which sofrito is commonly used. (670)
  • Serves as a foundation of soups or stews
  • Flavors basic rice or beans
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What is a citrus and fish mixture common to most of the Latin American coastal regions and is a signature dish in Peru? (691)
  • Ceviche
this country s food has been characterized as la cucina povera the cuisine of poverty 701
This country’s food has been characterized as la cucinapovera, the cuisine of poverty. (701)
  • Italy
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What is a popular Tunisian salad, made of roasted peppers and tomatoes and garnished with tuna and hard-boiled egg called? (719)
  • Salade compose
what are the 2 signature cooking methods of moroccan cuisine 731
What are the 2 signature cooking methods of Moroccan cuisine? (731)
  • Tagines
  • Couscoussieres
what is tagine 713
What is tagine? (713)
  • It is a meat stew that originated in Morocco.
  • It is also the word used for the earthenware or metal cooking vessel used to make the stew.
what is velveting in chinese cooking 740
What is velveting in Chinese cooking? (740)
  • Coat prepared meats with cornstarch and egg whites before stir frying to retain moisture and improve sauce adherence
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What is the Chinese cooking technique that is a long, slow braising in a mixture of soy sauce and water? (740)
  • Red cooking
what is masala 748
What is masala? (748)
  • A spice mixture that preparers grind and fry before they add them to dishes
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What is the Indian technique of scattering dry, whole, or ground spices into hot oil or ghee until they pop, flavoring the oil? (750)
  • Tarka