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Aaron M. Yoder, PhD – firstname.lastname@example.org Julie Sorensen, NE Center for Agricultural and Occupational Health Dennis J. Murphy, Penn Sate University Using Social Marketing and Education Programs to Minimize Legal and Human Risks to Ag Producers Including New and Beginning Farmers
Goal Discuss how social marketing techniques, in particular the concepts of barriers and motivators, can be used to influence producers to manage human and legal risks. Review other projects at Penn State that address managing human and legal risks.
Social Marketing in ASH Research to guide approaches to effective interventions Finding out what the target population’s barriers and motivators to behavior adoption are Design intervention to target those behavior influences
The eight essential social marketing components (Lefebvre and Flora) • A consumer orientation to realize organizational (social) goals • An emphasis on the voluntary exchanges of goods and services between providers and consumers • Research in audience analysis and segmentation strategies • The use of formative research in product and message design and the pretesting of these materials
The eight essential social marketing components (Lefebvre and Flora) • An analysis of distribution (or communication) channels • Use of the marketing mix—utilizing and blending product, price, place and promotion characteristics in intervention planning and implementation • A process tracking system with both integrative and control functions • A management process that involves problem analysis, planning, implementation and feedback functions
First Thought on Social Marketing “It takes discipline to follow the process and hold back.” Lynda Barfield Associate Director, Strategic Behavioral Communication at Family Health International
Given You have a BEHAVIOR you want to change in a population. “It is not what we think they need. It is what they want.” – Bill Smith Executive VP retired at Academy for Educational Development
Gateway Behaviors A FARMER
Selecting Target Audiences A target audience is selected through segmentation, a process to divide a broad audience (population) into homogeneous subaudiences (groups), called audience segments.
Selecting Target Audiences An audience segment is identified and aggregated by the shared characteristics and needs of the people in a broad audience, including similar demographics, psychographics, geographics, behaviors, social networks, community assets, and stage of change.
Segmentation Tools TARPARE Model T – Total Number in segment AR – proportion At Risk P – Persuability A – Accessibility R – Resources to meet needs E – Equity
Selecting Target Audiences It is ideal that a social marketing campaign focuses on one primary target audience, but secondary audiences are often identified, based on the marketing problem, purpose, and focus of the campaign.
Selecting Target Audiences An estimated size and informative description of the target audience(s) is needed. An ideal description of the target audience will make you believe that if a member of the audience walked into the room, you would “recognize” him or her.
Audience Profile To develop messages and materials, you need to describe a typical member of this target audience. Think about this person’s self esteem, risk-behavior taking tendencies, and beliefs. Then, develop an audience profile that is realistic and vivid.
Use Experts? When all think alike, no one thinks very much. Walter Lippmann (1889-1974)
Audience Profile What do you know this person thinks/feels/believes about the DESIRED BEHAVIOR? (social norms, levels of awareness, key attitudes about the desired behavior) What are barriers from the person’s point of you to performing DESIRED BEHAVIOR? What does this person believe would happen if he/she performs the DESIRED BEHAVIOR? (perceived consequences).
Barriers vs. Motivators –What’s important? How easy is it for you to make a behavioral change? I want to change _______ ! “Behavior change needs to be made fun, easy and popular.” – Bill Smith, Executive VP retired at Academy for Educational Development
Barriers Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the “cons” or “costs” of doing something. Financial cost and time are two commonly referenced barriers in agricultural safety and health.
Removing Barriers These barriers can be removed by: Offering monetary compensation, Demonstrating how the recommended behavior will save time, or By reducing the time required to engage in the activity.
Motivators Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the “pros,” “benefits, or “influencing factors” of doing something. Personally experiencing a near miss could motivate a farmer to follow recommended safe practices about riding extra on tractors.
Considering Both Considering both barriers and motivating factors is like coming at a single problem from two different angles. • For example, if financial cost is identified as a primary barrier to adopting a recommended behavior, then removing that cost may seem like the only thing necessary to achieve an effective behavioral intervention. • However, effectively changing behavior often requires the strategic application of incentives that make the behavior easier AND rewarding.
Is it that simple? Just because you address major barriers to ROPS retrofitting such as financial costs and time constraints, you don’t necessarily achieve the best intervention results. The greatest change in farmers intentions to install ROPS came from farmers exposed to a rebate (addressed barrier to behavioral change) and a targeted promotionalcampaign (addressed motivating factors for behavioral change).
The TTM • The Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change (TTM) is one of several behavior change theories that carefully consider the combination of barriers and motivators to effect behavioral change. • The TTM assesses an individual's readiness to engage in healthier behaviors, and provides strategies, or processes of change to move the individual through the stages of change to action and maintenance. • It is often referred to as the “Stages of Change” Model.
How Motivators and Barriers Fit Motivators Barriers Motivators Barriers
Motivators Motivators Barriers Motivators Barriers Barriers
ROPS Retrofit Program Facts Ag producers are 800% more likely to die on the job than the average worker Tractor rollovers are leading cause of death 7 of 10 families have to sell farm ROPS are 99% effective
ROPS Retrofit Program Facts 1300 tractors retrofitted Messages Rebates 800 Number NY, NH, PA, VT and WI
Barriers and Motivators in Agricultural Safety & Health 4 research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health; 2 studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm;and 2 studies that identify reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors.
Barriers and Motivators in Agricultural Safety & Health However, only 2 studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. These 2 research studies support the need for interventions to address both barriers to behavior change and motivating factors for behavior change. They also support the idea that it is important to understand where the target population is within behavioral change models.
Applications to Risk Management There is evidence from public health fields that research can identify motivators and barriers for adoption of safety strategies. This same methodology can be used in agriculture to encourage producers to: Add safety and health to their risk management plan. Implement the safety and health portion of their risk management plan.
Other PSU Human and Legal Risk Management Tools and Projects Farm/Agriculture/Rural Management Hazard Analysis Tool (FARM-HAT) Safety and Health Best Practices Resource Manual and Instructor’s Guide for New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Organizing and Conducting a Safe Tractor Operation Workshop
Farm/Agriculture/Rural Management Hazard Analysis Tool (FARM-HAT) A gradient scale to evaluate hazards Insight on how to conduct hazard abatement or correction Maximize information with minimum amount of text Quantifiable data Educational information about physical hazards only
Agricultural PesticidesPesticide Storage Areas Most Protection 1. A secure, separate, storage building, well ventilated with mechanical equipment, well lighted with proper signage, locked when not in use, approved heat source installed, emergency contact information posted. 2. A secure, separate, lockable storage building, may be left unlocked when not in use, passive ventilation provided, proper lighting and signage installed. 3. A lockable storage room or cabinet, within another building, locked when not in use, proper signage inside and out, PPE available but not stored in facility. 4. A lockable storage room or cabinet, within another building, unlocked when not in use, poor interior lighting, no signage. 5. Non-lockable storage area, pesticides stored in open building, no limited-access, PPE stored with pesticides, no signage. Least Protection (also see reverse side)
Safety and Health Best Practices Resource Manual and Instructor’s Guide for NBFRs Conduct a safety and health needs assessment Develop a Safety and Health Best Practices Resource Manual Develop a Operator/Manager Manual Conduct train-the-trainer workshops for safety and health best practice principles, strategies and techniques Promote these resources This project is supported by the Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA, Grant Number 2011-49400-30557.
Needs Assessment Results ¾ had 5 years or less of farming experience. 99% indicated a safe and healthful workplace was moderately or very important. 98% indicated they would be willing to assess the safety aspects of their farming operations using a do-it-yourself checklist or audit.
Needs Assessment Results 70% expressed a need for training Interest in hands-on workshops: 9 out of 10 - routine tractor maintenance 8 out of 10 - tractor driving/operations 7 out of 10 - connecting hydraulics or PTOs 25% indicated that they had a current certification in first aid and/or in CPR. Almost 50% of respondents indicated annual gross sales of less than $5,000.
Progress to Date Successful partnerships have been established. Partnering organizations promoted and facilitated a comprehensive safety and health needs assessment. Survey results are being applied to the development of manuals and workshops.
Workshops focusing on safe tractor driving and hitching have been conducted.
First drafts developed Operator/Manager Manual on Safety and Health Management Planning for New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Safety and Health Best Practices Resource Manual for New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers