Li2 class-based social variation I. Today’s topics. Linguistic variation conditioned by socio-economic status (class) Stigmatization and prestige varieties sources discrimination Class and traditional dialect Correlations of linguistic variables with class are arbitrary.
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% application of t-glottalization (t) and h-deletion (h)
from Trudgill 1974
R-deletion in NYC and Detroit
Mean % r-deletion in the black community in Detroit (Wolfram 1969)
Mean % r-deletion in 3 New York department stores (Labov 1966)
r-deletion in America vs. England
data from Labov (NYC) and Trudgill (Norwich)
Percentage of non-prevocalic r’s pronounced
Raising of long a to u before nasal consonants in two Persian dialects
Figure 1. Percent raising of (an) in the Farsi of Tehran and Ghazvin.
Yahya Modaressi-Tehrani (1978) A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Modern Persian. Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas.
Labov, William. 1962. The social history of a sound change on the island of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. Master’s essay, Columbia University.
Labov, William. 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Labov, William. 2000. Principles of Linguistic change. Volume II: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Modaressi-Tehrani, Yahya. 1978. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Modern Persian. Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas.
Preston, Dennis. 2000. Some plain facts about Americans and their language. American Speech 75.4:398-401.
Trudgill, Peter. 1974. The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Trudgill, Peter. 1978. Sex,covert prestige, and linguistic change in the urban British English of Norwich. Language in Society 1:179-96.
Wolfram, Walt. 1969. A Linguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.