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Treaty of Versailles. Map 25.5: Europe in 1919. Treaty of Versailles. Used Wilson’s 14 Points Big 3 + Italy (Big Four) Did not agree on goals for the peace talks. Woodrow Wilson USA. David Lloyd-George Great Britain. The Big Four. Vittorio Orlando Italy.

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Treaty of versailles1
Treaty of Versailles

  • Used Wilson’s 14 Points

  • Big 3 + Italy (Big Four)

  • Did not agree on goals for the peace talks

Treaty of versailles

Woodrow Wilson USA

David Lloyd-George Great Britain

The Big Four

Vittorio Orlando Italy

Georges Clemenceau France

Treaty of versailles2
Treaty of Versailles

  • Address underlying causes of the war

    • Open covenants (treaties)

    • Freedom of the seas

    • Tariffs/trade barriers

    • Arms build up

    • Colonial Policies

Treaty of versailles3
Treaty of Versailles

  • Used Wilson’s 14 Points

    • Germany saw hope – the settlement would not be vindictive

    • Clemenceau – “Wilson bores me with his Fourteen Points. Why the good lord himself has only ten.”

Versailles treaty
Versailles Treaty

  • Established 9 new Nations

  • Shifted boundaries of others

  • Demilitarized Germany

    • Not too weak, not too strong

  • Reparations - $33 billion

  • War-guilt clause

  • Created the League of Nations

14 points
14 Points

  • Point 14

    • League of Nations

      • Mutual defense

      • Resolution of disagreements

Treaty of versailles4
Treaty of Versailles

  • Germany had to

    • Demilitarize Rhineland

    • Saar basin to France - 15 yrs (coal)

    • Pay reparations - $33 billion

    • Return conquered lands

    • Reduce its military to 100,000 men

    • 6 battleships/ no submarines

    • No air force

    • Demilitarize western Germany

    • War guilt clause

  • Sign or face invasion --“Diktat”

Treaty of versailles

The War Guilt Clause

"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, theresponsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies."

Article 231



  • Germany

    • Humiliated

    • Reparations – economic depression

    • Lost territory

  • Alienated Russia

    • Lost territory

    • Not included in negotiations

  • Ignored claims by colonized people for self-determination

Treaty of versailles

How did Germans React to the Treaty?

Germans thought the Treaty was a “diktat” : a dictated peace. They had not been invited to the peace conference at Versailles and when the Treaty was presented to them they were threatened with war if they did not sign it.

The Treaty was NOT based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points as the Germans had been promised it would.

Most Germans believed that the War Guilt Clause wasunjustified. The French and British had done just as much to start the war

The loss of territory and population angered most Germans who believed that the losses were too severe.

Many Germans believed the German economy would be crippled by having to pay reparations.

Treaty of versailles5
Treaty of Versailles

  • The Kaiser’s government had been replaced and many believed that the new democratic government was being made to bear too much of a burden.

    • Could it survive?