Safety in the Welding Shop Chapter 1
Learning Objectives • Identify several common causes of accidents • Recognize possible safety hazards in the welding shop or other work environments. • Select and properly use safety equipment appropriate for work conditions. • Recognize and evaluate potential safety hazards and react appropriately to prevent accidents.
Essential Question • What are the common personal and physical factors contributing to accidents in a welding environment? • What are the common safety hazards in the welding shop or other work environments? • How can we eliminate and minimize safety hazards with the proper selection and use safety equipment appropriate for work conditions. • How do we evaluate potential safety hazards and react appropriately to prevent accidents.
Acetone Acetylene Earmuffs Earplugs Electric shock Electrical ground Electrical resistance Exhaust pickups First Degree Burn Flashburn Flash Glasses Forced ventilation GFCI Goggles Infrared Light MSDS Natural Ventilation Safety Glasses Second Degree Burn Third Degree Burn Type A Fire Extinguisher Vocabulary • Type B Fire Extinguisher • Type C Fire Extinguisher • Type D Fire Extinguisher • Ultraviolet Light • Valve Protection Cap • Ventilation • Visible Light • Warning Label • Welding helmet
Accidents Will Happen • Ultimately the responsibility for on the job safety rests with YOU. • A qualified person is someone who has the knowledge and experience to handle problems. • A competent person is someone who can identify working conditions or surroundings that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees and who has authorization to correct or eliminate these conditions promptly. • OSHA requires a competent person at all jobsites to ensure a safe workplace. • Competent person can shut the operation down until it is safe.
Three Categories of Events • There are THREE categories of on the job events. • Incidents – It could have happened. • Accidents – It did happen. • Injuries – Someone got hurt. • Proximity work is work that takes place near a hazard but not in direct contact with it.
Accidents Will Happen • An accident: unexpected and undesirable event. • Personal factors: • Stress • Illness • Fatique • Lack of Job Knowledge • Age • Lack of Wisdom • Attitude • Drugs/Alcohol • Others??
Accidents Will Happen • UNSAFE CONDITIONS: • Equipment Failure • Time of Day • Poor Housekeeping • Excessive Noise • Warning Label are not to be disregarded! • MSDS- Material Safety Data Sheet • What Information is on an MSDS Sheet?
SMAW Safety Fumes and Gases can be dangerous Keep your head out of the fumes Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general area The SMAW process can withstand wind and exhaust near the arc from ventilation equipment Electric Shock can kill – to receive a shock your body must touch the electrode and work or ground at the same time Do not touch the electrode or metal parts of the electrode holder with skin or wet clothing Keep dry insulation between your body and the metal being welded or ground Arc Rays can injure eyes and skin - Choose correct filter shade (See chart below) ** Information taken from ANSI Z49.1:2005** 9
Signs in the Safety Lab • Information • Safety • Caution ***** • Danger • A red barricade in a work area indicates danger from falling objects. • Posts and chain, steel cable, and wood rails are acceptable materials for a protective barricade.
Shop Safety • WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST • Electric shock can kill • Water lessens resistance and therefore make electricity more dangerous. • A lockout/tagout system which protects workers from hazardous energy while they work with machines and equipment.
Shop Safety • WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST • Fumes and Gases can be dangerous. • Forced ventilation is essential where inadequate natural ventilation is available for the hazard. Lincoln Electric Fumes Safety
Shop Safety • WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST • Welding Sparks can cause fire or explosion • Factors to Consider • Precautionary Summary Lincoln Electric Fire Explosion Risk
Shop Safety • WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST • Arc rays can burn eyes and skin • Factors to Consider • Precautionary Summary • Never wear Contact Lenses when welding.
Shop Safety • WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST • Confined Spaces • Factors to Consider • Precautionary Summary
Shop Safety • WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST • General Work Area Hazards • Factors to Consider • Precautionary Summary
Licoln Electric Safety Lessons • Electric Shock • Fumes & Gases • Fire & Explosion • Miscellaneous Welding Safety • Personal protective Equipment
Burn Classifications • First Degree Burns – surface of the skin is reddish in color, tender, and painful. No broken skin. • Second Degree Burns – surface of the skin is severely damaged, blistered, possible breaks in skin. • Third Degree Burns – surface of the skin and possibly the tissue below appears white and charred.
Burns Caused by Light • Three classifications of light: • Visible – the light we see. • Snow blindness, eye strain • Infrared – light waves felt as heat • Sunburn, blistered, etc. • Ultraviolet – not seen or felt but very DANGEROUS! • FLASHBURN • Can’t feel it until later. You may lose partial or complete sight permanently or temporarily depending on how badly the retina is damaged. Lights, Welding, Hazard GO
PPE • Never alter or modify your personal protection equipment. • Eye Protection: • Two functions: flying debris, light reflection. • Safety Glasses ANSI Z89 • American National Standards Institute • Goggles (same ANSI classification) • Full Face Shield (flying Debris) • Flash Glasses (tint to UV rays, reg light and debris) • Welding Helmets
Ear Protection • Hearing loss due to excessive exposure to loud noises. • Sparks and hot metal shavings entering the auditory canal. • To prevent ear infections clean your earplugs regularly with soap and water. Lincoln Ear Advisory
Waist, Leg, Arm Protection • You can purchase all sorts of covers for every part of your body. • Remember the basics in Unit 1: • No loose woven clothing • No synthetic • Long cotton or wool pants • Leather gloves • Ballcap/skull cap optional. • Eye protection • No synthetic or cloth shoes • No chains/phones/keys/zippers/lighters Reminder about covering up!
Hard Hats • The outer shell of a hard hatprotects your head from a hard blow. • Webbing keeps the hat 1 inch from your head. • Old are Metal, bad for electrical work. • Modern hard hats are made of Fiberglass. Reminder about covering up!
Personal Ventilation Reminder about covering up!
Ladder Positioning Position ladders so that they are: • Not in the paths of workers walking through, • Not in front of unblocked exits, • Not in front of doors that can open out into the ladder, • Not on boxes, barrels or other unstable surfaces, • On solid footing and level at the bottom, • Stable at the top with each rail supported equally, • Against a structure capable of supporting the intended load, • Away from debris and other hazards.
Ladder Placement Place ladders on solid surfaces that will support the ladder and prevent displacement by other workers. Block, tape, lock or guard a door if the ladder is placed where the door will hit it when opened.
Step-Ladder Setup Open up step ladder legs completely and lockthe spreader bar braces.
Never use the top of a step ladder Warning labels on stepladders clearly state that the top step and top cap are not to be used as a step. The higher you are on a step ladder, the less stable it becomes. step ladder too short for this job …could lead to this!! Doing this….
Setting up extension ladder Place ladder base on a firm, level surface with secure footing. Don’t place a ladder on unstable footing or soft ground. As the ladder sinks into the ground or slips from where it is positioned, it becomes very unstable. Position the ladder on solid ground or shoring to ensure stability. An unstable base
Setting up an extension ladder When working from an extension ladder, make sure it is set up at a 4:1 angle with secure footing on a firm level surface. For accessing an upper level, make sure the extension ladder is set up at a 4:1 angle on a firm, level surface and the side rails extend at least 3’ above the surface to be accessed. Lastly, make sure the extension ladder is secured at the top and bottom Proper ladder set-up Improper ladder set-up (not 3 ft. above roof line)
Proper Extension Ladder Setup For every four feet of ladder length measured from where the ladder contacts the support point, the base of the ladder should be one foot away from the supporting structure (one to four rule). The ladder must extend at least three feet above the surface to provide safe access or be rigidly secured at the top with a grasping device if less than three feet. The ladder in the photo contacts the supporting structure at 9 feet. This means that the base of the ladder should be 27 inches back from the support. Extended 3 ft. above top surface Secured from slipping 9 ft. 27 inches
Determining proper ladder setup angle One way to ensure proper angle is to stand with your feet at the base of the ladder and extend your arms straight out. If your hands just touch, the ladder will be very close to the 4 to 1 ratio.
Ladder set-up on uneven ground Ladder can be set up straight and level on just about any type of uneven surface using ladder levels attached to the side rails.
Straight ladder stabilizers The straight ladder side rails must be equally supported at the top, unless the ladder is equipped with an adequate stabilizer. Ladders with top stabilizers
Climbing or descending a ladder When climbing a ladder, you must have both hands free and face the ladder. This allows for three points of contact with the ladder at all times and reduces the chances of falling. The three point contact is two hands and one foot or one hand and two feet. This way Not this way
Climbing and descending This worker does not have both hands free to hold onto the ladder while climbing or descending the ladder. Proper ladder climbing with tools on belt and both hands free
Overreaching from the sides Doing this…. Could result in this!
Electrical Hazards and Ladders Don’t use metal or conductive ladders near energized electrical equipment or overhead power lines.
Tying Extension ladders Don’t tie or fasten ladder sections together to make a longer ladder, unless the manufacturer specifically endorses this modification using hardware fittings designed for that purpose.
Ladder misuse A ladder must be used only for purposes specifically recommended by the manufacturer. The ladder in this photo is being as a ramp to enter the house interior.
Step Ladder Misuse Rather than a firm, level surface, this stepladder is positioned on a fence so the such that the bottom step is taking the load rather than the side rails. It doesn’t extend three feet above the roof surface, is not secured, and the worker is standing on the top step to access roof. This stepladder is being misused to access doorway. Stepladders can’t be used partially closed and leaned against the wall.
Stepladder Misuse A 3-legged step-ladder with the worker standing on the top cap and balancing on one foot. (Also, no safety glasses while using a nail gun and hard hat is worn backwards)
Step ladder misuse This step ladder is not fully opened with spreader bar locked and the step ladder side rails are straddling a scaffold plank being set up in a position not intended by the manufacturer.
Hazardous Ladder Use A 3-legged step-ladder leaned against a 2x4 nailed across the window. A repair patch on the left front side rail of ladder. No fall protection in use while working at height.
Hazardous ladder use Unsecured, folded step-ladder set on an angled shed roof so that only the tips of the side rails lay on roof. Extension ladder not extended at least 3-feet above roof, set up at an angle greater than a 4:1, and it’s not secured top and bottom to prevent movement. No fall protection being used while on this walking/working surface.
Ladder Misuse Two workers using two step-ladders leaned against wall, set up over wood debris, with the far worker standing on the top step. (also, third worker needs fall protection) A better choice in ladders would make this job easier!!
More safe ladder practices Use a ladder only when you are mentally alert and physically able. Don’t let your belt buckle pass beyond either ladder side rails. Hold the ladder with one hand while working with the other. Don't hurry or skip rungs /steps when using the ladder. Be careful when pushing or pulling anything while up on a ladder.
A few more ladder safe practices Don't test a ladder by jumping on it. Don't paint a wood ladder. Don't use any ladder that has been exposed to fire or other strong chemicals. Protect ladders from environmental elements such as: excessive heat or cold. Don't drop or throw ladders. Store ladders out of the way of other employees. Secure ladders firmly when transporting on vehicles.
More Information OSHA Construction eTool – ladders CPWR – Ladder Safety (safety meeting topic) CPWR Video – ladder safety (online video) L & I Video Library (several videos on ladder safety)