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Safety in the Welding Shop. Chapter 1. Learning Objectives. Identify several common causes of accidents Recognize possible safety hazards in the welding shop or other work environments. Select and properly use safety equipment appropriate for work conditions.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Identify several common causes of accidents
  • Recognize possible safety hazards in the welding shop or other work environments.
  • Select and properly use safety equipment appropriate for work conditions.
  • Recognize and evaluate potential safety hazards and react appropriately to prevent accidents.
essential question
Essential Question
  • What are the common personal and physical factors contributing to accidents in a welding environment?
  • What are the common safety hazards in the welding shop or other work environments?
  • How can we eliminate and minimize safety hazards with the proper selection and use safety equipment appropriate for work conditions.
  • How do we evaluate potential safety hazards and react appropriately to prevent accidents.




Electric shock

Electrical ground

Electrical resistance

Exhaust pickups

First Degree Burn


Flash Glasses

Forced ventilation



Infrared Light


Natural Ventilation

Safety Glasses

Second Degree Burn

Third Degree Burn

Type A Fire Extinguisher

  • Type B Fire Extinguisher
  • Type C Fire Extinguisher
  • Type D Fire Extinguisher
  • Ultraviolet Light
  • Valve Protection Cap
  • Ventilation
  • Visible Light
  • Warning Label
  • Welding helmet
accidents will happen
Accidents Will Happen
  • Ultimately the responsibility for on the job safety rests with YOU.
  • A qualified person is someone who has the knowledge and experience to handle problems.
  • A competent person is someone who can identify working conditions or surroundings that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees and who has authorization to correct or eliminate these conditions promptly.
  • OSHA requires a competent person at all jobsites to ensure a safe workplace.
  • Competent person can shut the operation down until it is safe.
three categories of events
Three Categories of Events
  • There are THREE categories of on the job events.
  • Incidents – It could have happened.
  • Accidents – It did happen.
  • Injuries – Someone got hurt.
  • Proximity work is work that takes place near a hazard but not in direct contact with it.
accidents will happen1
Accidents Will Happen
  • An accident: unexpected and undesirable event.
  • Personal factors:
    • Stress
    • Illness
    • Fatique
    • Lack of Job Knowledge
    • Age
    • Lack of Wisdom
    • Attitude
    • Drugs/Alcohol
    • Others??
accidents will happen2
Accidents Will Happen
    • Equipment Failure
    • Time of Day
    • Poor Housekeeping
    • Excessive Noise
  • Warning Label are not to be disregarded!
  • MSDS- Material Safety Data Sheet
    • What Information is on an MSDS Sheet?
smaw safety
SMAW Safety

Fumes and Gases can be dangerous

Keep your head out of the fumes

Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general area

The SMAW process can withstand wind and exhaust near the arc from ventilation equipment

Electric Shock can kill – to receive a shock your body must touch the electrode and work or ground at the same time

Do not touch the electrode or metal parts of the electrode holder with skin or wet clothing

Keep dry insulation between your body and the metal being welded or ground

Arc Rays can injure eyes and skin - Choose correct filter shade (See chart below)

** Information taken from ANSI Z49.1:2005**


signs in the safety lab
Signs in the Safety Lab
  • Information
  • Safety
  • Caution *****
  • Danger
  • A red barricade in a work area indicates danger from falling objects.
  • Posts and chain, steel cable, and wood rails are acceptable materials for a protective barricade.
shop safety
Shop Safety
  • Electric shock can kill
    • Water lessens resistance and therefore make electricity more dangerous.
    • A lockout/tagout system which protects workers from hazardous energy while they work with machines and equipment.
shop safety1
Shop Safety
  • Fumes and Gases can be dangerous.
  • Forced ventilation is essential where inadequate natural ventilation is available for the hazard.

Lincoln Electric Fumes Safety

shop safety2
Shop Safety
  • Welding Sparks can cause fire or explosion
    • Factors to Consider
    • Precautionary Summary

Lincoln Electric Fire Explosion Risk

shop safety3
Shop Safety
  • Arc rays can burn eyes and skin
    • Factors to Consider
    • Precautionary Summary
    • Never wear Contact Lenses when welding.
shop safety4
Shop Safety
  • Confined Spaces
    • Factors to Consider
    • Precautionary Summary
shop safety5
Shop Safety
  • General Work Area Hazards
    • Factors to Consider
    • Precautionary Summary
licoln electric safety lessons
Licoln Electric Safety Lessons
  • Electric Shock
  • Fumes & Gases
  • Fire & Explosion
  • Miscellaneous Welding Safety
  • Personal protective Equipment
burn classifications
Burn Classifications
  • First Degree Burns – surface of the skin is reddish in color, tender, and painful. No broken skin.
  • Second Degree Burns – surface of the skin is severely damaged, blistered, possible breaks in skin.
  • Third Degree Burns – surface of the skin and possibly the tissue below appears white and charred.
burns caused by light
Burns Caused by Light
  • Three classifications of light:
    • Visible – the light we see.
      • Snow blindness, eye strain
    • Infrared – light waves felt as heat
      • Sunburn, blistered, etc.
    • Ultraviolet – not seen or felt but very DANGEROUS!
        • Can’t feel it until later. You may lose partial or complete sight permanently or temporarily depending on how badly the retina is damaged.

Lights, Welding, Hazard GO

  • Never alter or modify your personal protection equipment.
  • Eye Protection:
    • Two functions: flying debris, light reflection.
    • Safety Glasses ANSI Z89
      • American National Standards Institute
    • Goggles (same ANSI classification)
    • Full Face Shield (flying Debris)
    • Flash Glasses (tint to UV rays, reg light and debris)
    • Welding Helmets
ear protection
Ear Protection
  • Hearing loss due to excessive exposure to loud noises.
  • Sparks and hot metal shavings entering the auditory canal.
  • To prevent ear infections clean your earplugs regularly with soap and water.

Lincoln Ear Advisory

waist leg arm protection
Waist, Leg, Arm Protection
  • You can purchase all sorts of covers for every part of your body.
  • Remember the basics in Unit 1:
    • No loose woven clothing
    • No synthetic
    • Long cotton or wool pants
    • Leather gloves
    • Ballcap/skull cap optional.
    • Eye protection
    • No synthetic or cloth shoes
    • No chains/phones/keys/zippers/lighters

Reminder about covering up!

hard hats
Hard Hats
  • The outer shell of a hard hatprotects your head from a hard blow.
  • Webbing keeps the hat 1 inch from your head.
  • Old are Metal, bad for electrical work.
  • Modern hard hats are made of Fiberglass.

Reminder about covering up!

personal ventilation
Personal Ventilation

Reminder about covering up!

ladder positioning
Ladder Positioning

Position ladders so that they are:

  • Not in the paths of workers walking through,
  • Not in front of unblocked exits,
  • Not in front of doors that can open out into the ladder,
  • Not on boxes, barrels or other unstable surfaces,
  • On solid footing and level at the bottom,
  • Stable at the top with each rail supported equally,
  • Against a structure capable of supporting the intended load,
  • Away from debris and other hazards.
ladder placement
Ladder Placement

Place ladders on solid surfaces that will support the ladder and prevent displacement by other workers.

Block, tape, lock or guard a door if the ladder is placed where the door will hit it when opened.

step ladder setup
Step-Ladder Setup

Open up step ladder legs completely and lockthe spreader bar braces.

never use the top of a step ladder
Never use the top of a step ladder

Warning labels on stepladders clearly state that the top step and top cap are not to be used as a step. The higher you are on a step ladder, the less stable it becomes.

step ladder too short for this job

…could lead to this!!

Doing this….

setting up extension ladder
Setting up extension ladder

Place ladder base on a firm, level surface with secure footing.

Don’t place a ladder on unstable footing or soft ground.

As the ladder sinks into the ground or slips from where it is positioned, it becomes very unstable.

Position the ladder on solid ground or shoring to ensure stability.

An unstable base

setting up an extension ladder
Setting up an extension ladder

When working from an extension ladder, make sure it is set up at a 4:1 angle with secure footing on a firm level surface.

For accessing an upper level, make sure the extension ladder is set up at a 4:1 angle on a firm, level surface and the side rails extend at least 3’ above the surface to be accessed. Lastly, make sure the extension ladder is secured at the top and bottom

Proper ladder set-up

Improper ladder set-up (not 3 ft. above roof line)

proper extension ladder setup
Proper Extension Ladder Setup

For every four feet of ladder length measured from where the ladder contacts the support point, the base of the ladder should be one foot away from the supporting structure (one to four rule).

The ladder must extend at least three feet above the surface to provide safe access or be rigidly secured at the top with a grasping device if less than three feet.

The ladder in the photo contacts the supporting structure at 9 feet. This means that the base of the ladder should be 27 inches back from the support.


3 ft. above top surface

Secured from slipping

9 ft.

27 inches

determining proper ladder setup angle
Determining proper ladder setup angle

One way to ensure proper angle is to stand with your feet at the base of the ladder and extend your arms straight out. If your hands just touch, the ladder will be very close to the 4 to 1 ratio.

ladder set up on uneven ground
Ladder set-up on uneven ground

Ladder can be set up straight and level on just about any type of uneven surface using ladder levels attached to the side rails.

straight ladder stabilizers
Straight ladder stabilizers

The straight ladder side rails must be equally supported at the top, unless the ladder is equipped with an adequate stabilizer.

Ladders with top stabilizers

climbing or descending a ladder
Climbing or descending a ladder

When climbing a ladder, you must have both hands free and face the ladder. This allows for three points of contact with the ladder at all times and reduces the chances of falling. The three point contact is two hands and one foot or one hand and two feet.

This way

Not this way

climbing and descending
Climbing and descending

This worker does not have both hands free to hold onto the ladder while climbing or descending the ladder.

Proper ladder climbing with tools on belt and both hands free

overreaching from the sides
Overreaching from the sides

Doing this….

Could result in this!

electrical hazards and ladders
Electrical Hazards and Ladders

Don’t use metal or conductive ladders near

energized electrical equipment or overhead power lines.

tying extension ladders
Tying Extension ladders

Don’t tie or fasten ladder sections together to make a longer ladder, unless the manufacturer specifically endorses this modification using hardware fittings designed for that purpose.

ladder misuse
Ladder misuse

A ladder must be used only for purposes specifically recommended by the manufacturer.

The ladder in this photo is being as a ramp to enter the house interior.

step ladder misuse
Step Ladder Misuse

Rather than a firm, level surface, this stepladder is positioned on a fence so the such that the bottom step is taking the load rather than the side rails.

It doesn’t extend three feet above the roof surface, is not secured, and the worker is standing on the top step to access roof.

This stepladder is being misused to access doorway.

Stepladders can’t be used partially closed and leaned against the wall.

stepladder misuse
Stepladder Misuse

A 3-legged step-ladder with the worker standing on the top cap and balancing on one foot.

(Also, no safety glasses while using a nail gun and hard hat is worn backwards)

step ladder misuse1
Step ladder misuse

This step ladder is not fully opened with spreader bar locked and the step ladder side rails are straddling a scaffold plank being set up in a position not intended by the manufacturer.

hazardous ladder use
Hazardous Ladder Use

A 3-legged step-ladder leaned against a 2x4 nailed across the window.

A repair patch on the left front side rail of ladder.

No fall protection in use while working at height.

hazardous ladder use1
Hazardous ladder use

Unsecured, folded step-ladder set on an angled shed roof so that only the tips of the side rails lay on roof.

Extension ladder not extended at least 3-feet above roof, set up at an angle greater than a 4:1, and it’s not secured top and bottom to prevent movement.

No fall protection being used while on this walking/working surface.

ladder misuse1
Ladder Misuse

Two workers using two step-ladders leaned against wall, set up over wood debris, with the far worker standing on the top step. (also, third worker needs fall protection)

A better choice in ladders would make this job easier!!

more safe ladder practices
More safe ladder practices

Use a ladder only when you are mentally alert and physically able.

Don’t let your belt buckle pass beyond either ladder side rails.

Hold the ladder with one hand while working with the other.

Don't hurry or skip rungs /steps when using the ladder.

Be careful when pushing or pulling anything while up on a ladder.

a few more ladder safe practices
A few more ladder safe practices

Don't test a ladder by jumping on it.

Don't paint a wood ladder.

Don't use any ladder that has been exposed to fire or other strong chemicals.

Protect ladders from environmental elements such as: excessive heat or cold.

Don't drop or throw ladders.

Store ladders out of the way of other employees.

Secure ladders firmly when transporting on vehicles.


More Information

OSHA Construction eTool – ladders

CPWR – Ladder Safety (safety meeting topic)

CPWR Video – ladder safety (online video)

L & I Video Library (several videos on ladder safety)

  • Subpart L specifies the requirements needed
  • to safely erect scaffolds or staging.
  • Scaffolds are temporary platforms workers
  • use in order to access their work area and to
  • hold the supplies needed for that job.
  • Because of the locations and dangers involved,
  • only trained and competent persons are to erect
  • scaffolds at the job site.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirements
  • All scaffolds are to be
  • capable of supporting,
  • without failure, at least
  • 4 times the maximum
  • intended load.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Never allow debris/materials to collect on
  • scaffold
  •  Always use netting to catch anything that falls
  •  Make sure scaffold is secure

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Do not stand
  • on ties,
  • guardrails,
  • or extensions

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions2
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Do not overreach
  • outside the guardrails

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions3
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Stay off scaffold during loading or unloading
  •  Replace guardrails after loading or unloading
  •  Use 3-point climbing
  •  Don’t hang tarps without evaluation
  •  Exit mobile scaffolds before moved

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions4
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Always wear
  • fall protection
  • to avoid
  • accidents
  • Lanyard for harnesses
  • Prevent falls from 6’.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements footing or anchorage
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsFooting or Anchorage
  • The footing or anchorage
  • is to be on a solid foundation;
  • sound, rigid, and capable of
  • carrying the maximum
  • intended load without
  • settling or displacement.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements footing or anchorage1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsFooting or Anchorage
  • The use of unstable
  • objects to support
  • planks or scaffolds
  • is prohibited.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements guardrails
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsGuardrails
  • The use of guardrails is very
  • important, preventing workers
  • from falling. Nearly 3/4 of
  • the reported scaffold accidents
  • are caused by improper
  • guarding.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements guardrails1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsGuardrails
  • Open-ended or open-
  • sided platforms must
  • have standard
  • guardrails and
  • toeboards.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements guardrails2
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsGuardrails
  • The guardrails are to be 2 X 4 and about 42”
  • high with a midrail whenever needed. The
  • supports for the guardrails are to be at
  • intervals no more than 8 feet.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements protective screening
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsProtective Screening
  • Overhead protection shall be provided for
  • men on scaffolds and, in the same sense,
  • a screen is to be placed
  • below the scaffold
  • where persons may in
  • danger of falling objects.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • These are vehicle-mounted
  • elevating and rotating work
  • platforms such as ladder
  • trucks and tower trucks.
  • Aerial lifts are to be
  • operated only by
  • authorized persons.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n1
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower
  • traveling position by the locking device on top
  • of the truck cab, and the manually operated
  • device at the base of the ladder before the
  • truck is moved for highway travel.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n2
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Never move an aerial lift
  • truck when the boom is
  • elevated in a working
  • position with men in the
  • basket, except where
  • specifically designed for
  • this type of operation.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n3
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Lifts that are used primarily as personnel
  • carriers must have both platform (upper) and
  • lower controls. The lower controls are to
  • override the upper controls, never to be used
  • without permission from the employee in the
  • lift, except in emergencies.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n4
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:
  •  Always stand firmly
  • on the floor of the
  • basket and not sit or
  • climb on the edge

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n5
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:
  •  Wear a body belt
  • and have a lanyard
  • attached to the
  • boom or basket
  • for fall protection

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n6
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:
  •  Keep within specified load limits
  •  Use brakes and wheel chocks when needed

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n7
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Examples:
  •  Telescoping
  •  Rotating boom
  •  Scisor type

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

handling storing cylinders
Handling/Storing Cylinders
  • Oxygen and fuel cylinders must be stored separately.
    • 20 feet apart
    • 1.5 hour burn rate/5 ft. wall
    • This will ensure that the heat of a small fire from causing the oxygen cylinder safety valve to release. A raging inferno would pursue with the oxygen.
  • Inert gases may be stored with oxygen cylinders.
  • Empty cylinders stored separately
handling storing cylinders1
Handling/Storing Cylinders
  • Securing Cylinders:
    • Chained to a wall.
    • Upright Position.
    • In areas away from halls of stairs
    • Away from heat sources, radiators, furnaces, and welding sparks.
  • Valve Protection Caps
    • Always on, unless in use.
    • Cap protects the valve in the event the cylinder is knocked over or bumped.
    • Missile Effect.
handling storing cylinders2
Handling/Storing Cylinders
  • Leaking cylinders, identified and supplier notified. Soap stone to identify.
  • Acetylene cylinders should never lay on their sides. If so, they must stand upright for 4 hours before they can be used.
  • The way the acetylene tank works, it has a filler and acetone in the tank to stabilize the acetylene. If you do not allow these to separate you will get acetone mixed with acetylene in your release and your flame intensity will be compromised (lower temperature), thus ruining your weld.
welding with oxy fuel
Welding with Oxy Fuel
  • Welding considered HOT WORK by the National Association of Fire Prevention.
  • Plumbers required waiting period. (Fire Watch)
  • Burn bans in fire storm areas (Southern California, Colorado recently).
  • When welding Always check for three things:
welding with oxy fuel1
Welding with Oxy Fuel
  • Always make sure regulators are installed for the correct fuel. Acetylene vs. Fuel
  • Threads for fuel different from oxygen (reverse thread).
  • Hoses for Oxygen are green.
  • Hoses for fuel are red.
  • Always weld in well ventilated area due to the toxic fumes that may be created.

Fire Extinguishers

  • A-Green triangle letter A
    • Combustible materials such as paper, wood, and cloth.
  • B-Red square letter B
    • Combustible liquids such as gas, and paint thinner.
  • C-Blue Circle letter C
    • Electrical Fires, motors, fuse boxes, and welding machines.
  • D-Yellow Star letter D
    • Combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zinc.

Fire Extinguishers

  • Location is very essential.
  • Marked with red paint and signs
  • High enough to be seen
  • Appropriate for the material in the area.
  • Maxwell fire extinguishers are multipurpose ABC Dry Chemical.
  • What type of exposure is NOT covered with our current system?
fire extinguisher
Fire Extinguisher
  • When using a foam extinguisher, allow foam to fall lightly on the base of the fire.
  • Carbon Dioxide extinguisher, get as close to fire as possible, start at the edge and go to the center.
  • Dry Chemical extinguishers, direct the extinguisher at the base of the flames.
maintenance plan
Maintenance Plan
  • Maxwell will have planned maintenance days when the equipment, bays, lab condition will be inspected and improved upon.
  • Assigned welding bays to ensure you are cleaning your mess. We will expect that spatter is grinded daily!
  • Sign out equipment and return it.
  • Grind your tables and positioners to remove spatter.
  • No food or drink EVERY in the welding lab. (If you spill a coke and you may die of electrocution!)
maintenance plan1
Maintenance Plan
  • Electric cables that are damaged may be spliced, but NEVER less that 10 feet from the electrode holder.
  • Use Electrodes to the numbers. Put stubs in the stub box.
  • Be clean and aware of your surroundings and conditions. If you are sweating and are all wet, you may want to change your shirt.
  • Any work left out that is still hot should be identified as HOT in your bay by posting the “HOT JOB INSIDE” magnet on your threshold.

Lincoln Electric Additional Safety Info

electric shock and safety
Electric Shock and Safety
  • Electrical resistance is lowered in the presence of water!
  • All cables and contact are tight! Never a gap for metal shavings to get into.
electric shock and safety1
Electric Shock and Safety
voltage current and tools
Voltage/Current and Tools
  • Always make sure you look at the voltage rating of a tool and use it with the appropriate power supply.
  • A power source with a voltage greater than the specified voltage can lead to serious injury.
  • A power source that is a lower voltage than the rating on the tool can lead to motor damage.
  • Higher the amps the more powerful the motor.
  • GFCI – Ground fault circuit interrupter: sense the surge and shut down the circuit to save the device and the user.
  • Pedestal
  • Portable
  • Smoothing a weld, grinding a groove, removing rust and spatter.
  • The stone has a max rpm on the paper label. Must match with the grinding tool. If you exceed rpm, can explode your stone, dude, causing serious injury or death even!
  • NEVER use stone is cracked.
  • Never grind aluminum on a stone meant for mild steel, glazes the stone.
  • Surface becomes clogged with metal.
  • Remove gloves when using pedestal grinder. Caught, and sparks fly away!
drill press
Drill Press
  • Always clamp item to table to be drilled.
  • Do not try and hold it. The torque from this machine will rip your fingers off!
  • When possible use the center punch machine to pre punch a small opening and then drill your hole.
metal cutting machines
Metal Cutting Machines
  • Shears and Punches
  • Motorized usually. Cuts ½” mild steel like butter.
  • Angle Bender
  • Horizontal Saw: JET
  • Demonstration of Each
guest speakers
Guest Speakers
  • Dr. Gary Pence, Georgia Optometry
  • Anatomy of the Eye
  • Eye Conditions
    • Color Blindness and Other Eye Tests
  • Injuries & Horror Stories
  • Eye Care & Correct use of an eye wash
  • Prescription Welding Eyecare
guest speakers1
Guest Speakers
  • Dustin Wagner – GCFD Station 22
  • Electric Shock and Burn First Aid
  • CPR
  • Special procedure
  • Fire Marshall Inspection