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Vitamin D. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin D: 400 IU/day To prevent rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D Deficiency. Rickets, Osteomalacia. Influenza, Tuberculosis MS, RA, SLE, Type I diabetes Hypertension, CAD, PVD, CHF
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Vitamin D Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin D: 400 IU/day To prevent rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets, Osteomalacia Influenza, Tuberculosis MS, RA, SLE, Type I diabetes Hypertension, CAD, PVD, CHF Syndrome X, Type 2 Diabetes Chronic Fatigue, SAD, Depression Cataracts, Infertility Osteoporosis Cancer
Vitamin D 25(OH)D 1,25(OH)D 26 + cells throughout the body UVB photons 7-dehydrocholesterol
System and Tissue Distribution of Nuclear Vitamin D Receptors (VDR) SystemTissue Immune Thymus, bone marrow, macrophages, B cells, T cells Gastrointestinal Esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum Cardiovascular Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, myocytes Respiratory Lung alveolar cells Hepatic Liver parenchyma cells Renal Proximal and distal tubules, collecting duct Endocrine Parathyroid, thyroid, pancreatic beta cells Exocrine Parotid gland, sebaceous gland CNS Brain neurons, astrocytes, microglia Epidermis/appendage Skin, breast, hair follicles Musculoskeletal Osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes, striated muscle Connective Tissue Fibroblasts, stroma Reproductive Testis, ovary, placenta, uterus, endometrium, yolk sac
Nutrigenomics Vitamin D Confirmatory PCR for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-regulated genes found by Affymetrix GeneChip transcriptional profiling Wood RJ, Tchack L, Angelo G, etal. DNA Microarray Analysis of Vitamin D-induced Gene Expression in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line. Physiological Genomics 2004;17:122-129.
Human Migration Out of Africa 35° N 35° S Lamson Rl, etal. SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans. Science 2005;310:1782-1786.
Indigenous Human Skin Color by Latitude 35° N 35° S Jablonski NG, Chaplin G. The evolution of human skin coloration. J Hum Evol 2000;39:57-106
Seasonal Variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels in People at Latitude 48° N Cannell JJ, etal. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect 2006;134:1129-1140.
Cannell JJ, etal. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect 2006;134:1129-1140
Noncalcemic Functions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D Cytokines Adaptive Innate Immune modulation
Multiple Sclerosis in World War II Veterans by Latitude and State of Residence Wallin MT, etal. Multiple sclerosis in US veterans… Ann Neurol 2004;55:65-71
Breast Cancer Mortality Rates and Contours of Annual Mean Daily Solar Irradiance Lappe JM, etal. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: Results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1586-1591.
25-hydroxyvitamin D3 Blood Levels Calcium Absorption Severely deficient < 8 ng/ml Deficient 8-19 ng/ml Insufficient 20-29 ng/ml Sufficient 30-49 ng/ml Optimal 50-99 ng/ml Excessive 100-150 ng/ml Toxic >150 ng/ml 32 ng/ml PTH Levels (1 ng/ml = 2.5 nmol/L, 1 nmol/L = O.4 ng/ml)
Preop Vitamin D3 levels in 73 Veterans Undergoing Heart Surgery at the Seattle VA Hospital * Prostrate cancer – 3; Colon cancer – 1; Tonsillar cancer – 1; Melanoma -- 1 Surgery performed December 2006 – July 2007
Sources of Vitamin D Cholecalciferol (D3) and Ergocalciferol (D2) Dietary Natural Salmon (wild, 3.5 oz) 800 IU D3 Salmon (farmed, 3.5 oz) 150 IU D2 or D3 Cod liver oil (1 tsp) 400-1100 IU D3 Tuna (canned, 3.6 oz) 230 IU D3 Egg yolk 20 IU D 2 or D3 Fortified Foods Milk (8 oz) 100 IU D3 Orange juice (8 oz) 100 IU D3 Infant formula (8 oz) 100 IU D3 Butter (3.5 oz) 50 IU D3 Breakfast cereals/serving 100 IU D3 Supplements Prescription Ergocalciferol (D2) 50,000 IU/capsule Over the Counter Multivitamins 400 IU D2 or D 3 Cholecalciferol (D3) 400, 800, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 50,000 IU/tablet Skin synthesizes 20,000 IU D3 in 20 minutes when exposed to sunlight 5,000 IU D3 50,000 IU D3 OTC at vitalady.com, lifespannutrition.com
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels on 0, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 IU of Vitamin D3 a Day (80 ng/ml) 80 ng/ml 10,000 IU qd 60 ng/ml (60 ng/ml) 5000 IU qd 30 ng/ml (30 ng/ml) 1000 IU qd 0 Heany RP, etal. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:204-210.
Benefits of Vitamin D • Skeletal-muscular • Strong muscles and bones • Infections • Prevent influenza, treat tuberculosis • Cancer • Prevent breast, colon, and prostate cancer • ? Suppress metastasizes • Autoimmune Diseases • Prevent multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes • Cardiovascular Disease • Slow progression of atherosclerosis • Treat hypertension and congestive heart failure • Neuropsychiatric Disorders • Prevent schizophrenia and relieve depression