Understanding Service Needs
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Understanding Service Needs. Objectives. To examine the context of service delivery in local government To examine how we can understand service needs To look at techniques for understanding service costs and demand patterns

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  • To examine the context of service delivery in local government

  • To examine how we can understand service needs

  • To look at techniques for understanding service costs and demand patterns

  • To revisit stakeholder consultation in the light of political initiatives such as Localism and the Big Society

  • To examine stools for service delivery optimisation

Links to other procurement programmes

  • This programme is the 1st Module in a series covering every aspect of the Do Buy Share approach

  • Completion of all the modules will provide the knowledge required for the ILM Level 3 Award in Service Improvement

  • A work based assignment is required to be awarded the qualification

  • Further details will be available on the Do Buy Share website

  • A link will be mailed to you shortly

Contract Relationship Management


Solution Provision

Commercial Assessment

Identity Service Need

5 Modules

Benchmarked to:

National Occupational Standards for Purchasing

Full attendance plus completion of assessment leads to ILM Level 3 Award in Service Improvement

Learning Materials

Programme supported by Workbooks and elearning via iLearn

Dedicated Client service manager


Evolution? Revolution? Adaption?


“There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things”

Sir winston churchill
Sir Winston Churchill

“To improve is to change;

to be perfect is to change often”

Where are we now spectre analysis
Where are we now? SPECTRE ANALYSIS

  • Social

  • Political

  • Economic

  • Customer

  • Technological

  • Regulatory

  • Environmental

Caius petronius ad 66
Caius Petronius AD 66

“We trained hard, but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams we would be reorganised. I was to learn later in life that we tend to meet any new situation by reorganising, and a wonderful method it can be for creating the illusion of progress, while producing confusion, inefficiency and demoralisation.”

Double loop learning seeks to create
Double Loop Learning – seeks to create

Demand mapping
Demand Mapping

How can we make the service fit the demand?

Understanding patterns in demand

SMART resourcing

Thinking outside the square

Run chart or time series analysis
RUN chart or Time series analysis

Use to examine patterns in a a service or process and play back to the delivery team to identity frequency, scale, trends and ownership.

Business process mapping
Business Process Mapping

What does the service look like?

What happens first, what happens next?

From the providers view

From the Customers view

Get input from all and get people to draw simple flow charts

Compare them, discuss the differences

Decide what it needs to be against what it is now (Gap analysis)

Draw the improved process

The service chain looking for the weak links
The Service Chain – looking for the weak links

The kano questionnaire
The Kano Questionnaire

What value is added at each stage of the process?

Triaging work
Triaging work

  • Cost of 5 minute interview with middle manager in an interview room

  • Cost of dealing with transaction by email

  • Cost of dealing with transaction by phone

  • Cost of dealing transaction by website



The pareto principle
The Pareto Principle

80% of queries handled at 1st point of contact20% escalated

The concept of fast fixes
The Concept of Fast Fixes

Organisations may have several departments that have direct interaction with the customer.

These include :

Those on the front line - 1st level support

Those who try to fix the problem initially – 2nd level support

Those to whom the problem is sent if it can't be fixed- 3rd level support

Managers who may get involved if the customer is irate

Design for minimum customer handling – Why can’t the first point of contact fix the problem ?

Golden rules of focus or user groups
Golden rules of Focus or User Groups

Make sure group is representative

Convenient venue for the participants

Ideally around 10 – 12

Around 90 minutes long

You’ll need a facilitator and note taker

Open questions – one at a time to speak

Around 6 topics- let participants know what they are in advance

Send copies of notes and thanks afterwards

Golden rules of surveys

Make sure sample is representative

One side of A4 printed on yellow paper

Minimum questions to increase response, ideally 10

Measure degrees of satisfaction and dissatisfaction (disagree strongly/disagree/agree/agree strongly)

Use 4 tick boxes per question - simple language

Allow room for comment

Design for easy compilation of results

Golden Rules of Surveys

A questionable questionnaire
A Questionable Questionnaire

Suppose that a summer camp director had prepared the following questionnaire to use in interviewing the parents of prospective campers.

1. What is your income to the nearest £100 ?

People don’t usually know their income to the nearest 100 nor do they want to reveal their income that closely. Moreover, a researcher should never open a questionnaire with such a personal question.

2. Are you a strong or weak supporter of overnight summer camping for your children ?

What do strong and weak mean ?


A questionable questionnaire 2
A Questionable Questionnaire 2

3. Do your children behave themselves well at summer camp?

Yes ( ) No ( )

  • Behave is a relative term. Furthermore, are ‘yes’ and ‘no’ the best responses to allow for this question? Besides, will people want to

  • answer this? Why ask the question in the first place?

  • 4. How many camps mailed literature to you last April ?

  • This April ?

  • Who can remember this?

  • 5. What are the most salient and determinant attributes in your evaluation of summer camps ?

  • What are ‘salient’ and ‘determinant’ attributes? Don’t use big words

  • 6. Do you think it is right to deprive your child of the opportunity

  • to grow into a mature person through experience of

  • summer camping?

  • A loaded question. Given the bias, how can any parent answer ‘yes’



About your organisation

What would you like your customers to say about your organisation and the way it deals with them ?

About You

What would you like your customers to say about you and the way you deal with them ?

Behavioural standards for barpersons
Behavioural Standards for Barpersons

Acknowledges customers arriving at the bar within 30 seconds

Smiles and greets in a polite and friendly manner Serves customers in strict order of arrival

Works from left to right in each segment of the bar

Serves right drink with right change in 3-4 minutes

Why do customers leave what the research says
Why do customers leave?–What the research says

14% are dissatisfied with the service itself

Sources : British Quality Foundation

Institute for Customer Service

68% are dissatisfied with the indifferent attitude of

just one member of staff

14% are attracted by other suppliers (where they have a choice)

Individual behaviour makes the
Individual behaviour makes the



Every individual makes a significant impact customer experience & on the organisations service reputation


It is a myth that service quality is the major influence on customer satisfaction – it’s just one!

Why are people and organisations

often resistant to change?

The transition curve



Incorporate meanings

into new behaviours



Temporary retreat







Seeking understanding

why things are different

Not until people get out of activity

Awareness that change is necessary

do they understand their lives better

Frustration phase

How to deal with change




New behaviours, new approaches


Tendency here to stereotype

i.e. the way things should be done

Lot of energy

Shock overwhelmed

mismatch between

Begin to deal with new reality


Lot of anger and frustration

high expectations

and reality


Beginning of transition


"Letting go of past" comfortable

attitudes and behaviours

The Transition Curve

Understanding how some senior managers feel
Understanding how some senior managers feel

  • It’s best not to give information about ‘work in progress’

  • It’s best not to say, “I don’t know”.

  • Don’t be the bearer of bad news.

  • Don’t give information unless absolutely necessary.

  • Secrets must be guarded

  • The average employee cannot handle difficult information.

  • Information should be dispensed on a “need to know” basis

Transition period issues
Transition Period Issues

  • Uncertainty and anxiety felt about the eventual outcome of the change

  • People asking questions to which managers do not have the answers

  • Resistance if the change seems threatening

  • Rumour

  • Uncertainty and ambiguity about roles and responsibilities Maintaining the initial surge of energy and enthusiasm for change

  • Constant re-appraisal of objectives and priorities

  • People looking for opportunities & advantages

  • Planning the desired future state

  • Difficulty maintaining morale and commitment

  • Physical upheaval

  • Maintaining comfort zones

Understanding driving restraining forces
Understanding Driving & Restraining Forces

Force Field Analysis - Lewin






What s in it for me pay offs




leads to


What's in it for me? Pay-Offs

The behaviourist approach - Skinner

Freeze unfreeze refreeze

Understanding how it feels

If you were a water molecule......

Where are we now?

Where do we need to be?





& Research

GAP analysis


Using a practical model to drive change

External trends and drivers

Moving from the Present state to the Desired state through empowerment.

External & Internal Research and feedback

Present state – Desired future state

Where are we now using swot analysis dynamically to plan the change
Where Are We Now ?Using SWOT Analysis dynamically to plan the change

The moebus strip puts us all on the same side
The Moebus Strip – puts us all on the same side

‘People do not resist their own ideas’

- Rowley & Rogers

The adkar model shifting to fast download for maximum speed of adoption
The ADKAR Model – shifting to fast download for maximum speed of adoption

The components

  • Awareness of the need for change

  • Desire to support and participate in the change

  • Knowledge of how to change

  • Ability to implement new skills & behaviours

  • Reinforcement to sustain the change

Fast Download gets 50% speed up in adoption

(Prosci Consulting study of 1600 companies in 20 countries)

Where are we going

“Our ongoing mission, to

seek out new worlds and new civilisations.

To boldly go where no one

has gone before!”

Where Are We Going?

Rich pictures what does your ideal future look like
Rich PicturesWhat does your ideal future look like?

Tools for change lean six sigma
Tools for Change – Lean Six Sigma


Born out of manufacturing but applicable to service delivery, processes and systems

Coined in 90’s

Mostly derived from the Toyota production system

Focuses on eliminating the 7 wastes

Six Sigma

Developed by Motorola in 1986 but drawing on many other established approaches from the previous 50 years

Can be applied to manufacturing or service industries

Designed to reduce error and waste, improve service and reduce cost

Involves all stakeholders

Inspired by the work of dr deming
Inspired by the work of Dr Deming

  • The PDCA cycle

    • Plan

    • Do

    • Check

    • Act






DMAIC – Improving existing processes or services

Develop problem description and project goals

Collect customer data

Review historical data

Map the current process

Set up a team and define its remit

Identify critical quality requirements

Evaluate current measurement system

Develop a better one if found wanting

Collect data

Identify process steps that add value

Identify root cause for problem areas

Target waste

Prioritize root causes

Map the future state

Develop potential solutions

Review best practice and adopt if sound

Set criteria for selecting solutions

Pilot solutions

Roll out solutions

Document the new process

Map the process

Set up monitoring & review

Train staff

Identify lessons learned.

  • More supply than demand

  • Cost of delivery

  • - Reduce

  • Idle stock,

  • Kit, or space

  • Internal

  • Or external delay

  • Dead time

  • -

  • Reduce

  • Complex

  • Not needed

  • Use triage to fix









The 7 Wastes

The 5 whys
The 5 ‘whys’

An example:

My car will not start. (the problem)

Why? - The battery is dead. (first why)

Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (second why)

Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (third why)

Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and has never been replaced. (fourth why)

Why? - I have not been maintaining my car according to the recommended service schedule. (fifth why, root cause)

Case study practice nurses
Case study – Practice Nurses

  • 12 Nurses from 12 practices buy 3 brands of dressings Their combined stock takes up 500 square feet of storageAnnual wastage runs at 15%How could they use a Six Sigma approach to improve efficiency and save money

CTQ Tree – Critical to Quality

Happy Patients

Short waits

Friendly staff

Easy access



Cared for



The fishbone or ishikawa diagram
The Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram








Maps cause and effect


No – George did not invent it!

It’s a quality process where you make your service less prone to random variability

How would you make sure your delivery drivers had equal skills and did not waste time on delivery runs?

Choosing between directions
Choosing between directions

  • How can we make objective choices about which change options to pursue?

  • Some tools

  • Cost benefit plus

  • PICK charts

  • Decision Matrices

Cost benefit analysis to compare alternatives
Cost Benefit Analysis to compare alternatives

What delivers the most cost effective solution?

Cash benefits?

Plus + Time costs?

Plus + Transaction costs between options?

Plus + Are we triaging service delivery at most cost effective level?

Plus + Are Social benefits relevant?

PICK Chart

When faced with multiple improvement ideas a PICK chart may be used to determine the most useful. There are four categories on a 2*2 matrix; horizontal is scale of payoff (or benefits), vertical is ease of implementation.

It would be a BETTER solution with these elements

What does the ideal solution look like?


Compare and score

The best solution delivers all Essentials and scores highest on Desirables

The solution MUST contain these elements


Some tools for Service Design -Kepner Tregoe

Analyze to develop and design alternatives, create a high-level design and evaluate alternatives to select the best design