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An Introduction to Programming with C++ Fifth EditionPowerPoint Presentation

An Introduction to Programming with C++ Fifth Edition

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An Introduction to Programming with C++ Fifth Edition. Chapter 2 Beginning the Problem-Solving Process. Objectives. Explain the problem-solving process used to create a computer program Analyze a problem Complete an IPO chart Plan an algorithm using pseudocode and flowcharts

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### An Introduction to Programming with C++Fifth Edition

Chapter 2

Beginning the Problem-Solving Process

Objectives

- Explain the problem-solving process used to create a computer program
- Analyze a problem
- Complete an IPO chart
- Plan an algorithm using pseudocode and flowcharts
- Desk-check an algorithm

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Concept Lesson

- Problem Solving
- Solving Everyday Problems
- Creating Computer Solutions to Problems
- Analyzing the Problem
- Planning the Algorithm
- Desk-Checking the Algorithm
- The Gas Mileage Problem
- Summary

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Problem Solving

- In this lesson, you will:
- Explore the thought process followed when solving problems
- Learn how to use a similar process to create a computer solution to a problem
- Called a computer program

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Solving Everyday Problems

- First step in solving a problem: analyze it
- E.g., problem of being hungry

- Next, you plan, review, implement, evaluate, and modify (if necessary) the solution
- E.g., if you are still hungry

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Solving Everyday Problems (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Solving Everyday Problems (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Creating Computer Solutions to Problems

- Analysis tools: IPO charts, pseudocode, flowcharts
- To desk-check or hand-trace,use pencil, paper, and sample data to walk through algorithm
- A coded algorithm is called a program

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Creating Computer Solutions to Problems (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Analyzing the Problem

- Analyze a problem to:
- Determine the goal of solving it
- Output

- Determine the items needed to achieve that goal
- Input

- Determine the goal of solving it
- Always search first for the output

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Analyzing the Problem (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

IPO Charts

- Use an IPO chart to organize and summarize the results of a problem analysis
- IPO:Input, Processing, and Output

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

IPO Charts (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

IPO Charts (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Analyzing the Problem (continued)

- First, reduce the amount of information you need to consider in your analysis:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Analyzing the Problem (continued)

- Worse than having too much information is not having enough information to solve problem:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Analyzing the Problem (continued)

- Distinguish between information that is missing and information that is implied:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Planning the Algorithm

- Algorithm: set of instructions that will transform the problem’s input into its output
- Record it in the Processing column of the IPO chart

- Processing item: intermediate value used by algorithm when processing input into output
- Pseudocode is a tool programmers use to help them plan an algorithm
- Short English statements

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Planning the Algorithm (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Planning the Algorithm (continued)

- Flowcharts are also used to plan an algorithm
- Use standardized symbols
- Symbols connected with flowlines
- Oval: start/stop symbol
- Rectangle: process symbol
- Represents tasks such as calculations

- Parallelogram: input/output symbol
- Represents I/O tasks

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Planning the Algorithm (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Planning the Algorithm (continued)

- A problem can have more than one solution:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Hints for Writing Algorithms

This problem specification is almost identical to the one shown earlier in Figure 2-4

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Hints for Writing Algorithms (continued)

You may use a portion of a previous solution to solve current problem

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Desk-Checking the Algorithm

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Desk-Checking the Algorithm (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Desk-Checking the Algorithm (continued)

- Valid data is data that the programmer is expecting the user to enter
- Invalid data is data that he or she is not expecting the user to enter
- You should test an algorithm with invalid data
- Users may make mistakes when entering data

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

The Gas Mileage Problem

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

The Gas Mileage Problem (continued)

- After planning the algorithm, you desk-check it:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Summary

- Problem-solving typically involves analyzing the problem, and then planning, reviewing, implementing, evaluating, and modifying (if necessary) the solution
- Programmers use tools (IPO charts, pseudocode, flowcharts) to help them analyze problems and develop algorithms
- During analysis, you determine the output and input
- During planning, you write the steps that will transform the input into the output

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Summary (continued)

- After the analysis and planning, you desk-check the algorithm
- Follow each of the steps in algorithm by hand

- Coding refers to translating the algorithm into a language that the computer can understand
- Before writing an algorithm, consider whether you have already solved a similar problem

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

Application Lesson: Using the First Steps in the Problem-Solving Process

- Lab 2.1: Stop and Analyze
- Lab 2.2:
- Create a program that the salesclerks can use to calculate and display the required number of rolls

- Lab 2.3:
- The program must now display the number of single and double rolls of wallpaper

- Lab 2.4: Desk-Check Lab
- Lab 2.5: Debugging Lab

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition

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