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An Introduction to Programming with C++ Fifth Edition. Chapter 2 Beginning the Problem-Solving Process. Objectives. Explain the problem-solving process used to create a computer program Analyze a problem Complete an IPO chart Plan an algorithm using pseudocode and flowcharts

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An introduction to programming with c fifth edition

An Introduction to Programming with C++Fifth Edition

Chapter 2

Beginning the Problem-Solving Process


Objectives
Objectives

  • Explain the problem-solving process used to create a computer program

  • Analyze a problem

  • Complete an IPO chart

  • Plan an algorithm using pseudocode and flowcharts

  • Desk-check an algorithm

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Concept lesson
Concept Lesson

  • Problem Solving

  • Solving Everyday Problems

  • Creating Computer Solutions to Problems

  • Analyzing the Problem

  • Planning the Algorithm

  • Desk-Checking the Algorithm

  • The Gas Mileage Problem

  • Summary

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Problem solving
Problem Solving

  • In this lesson, you will:

    • Explore the thought process followed when solving problems

    • Learn how to use a similar process to create a computer solution to a problem

      • Called a computer program

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Solving everyday problems
Solving Everyday Problems

  • First step in solving a problem: analyze it

    • E.g., problem of being hungry

  • Next, you plan, review, implement, evaluate, and modify (if necessary) the solution

    • E.g., if you are still hungry

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Solving everyday problems continued
Solving Everyday Problems (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Solving everyday problems continued1
Solving Everyday Problems (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Creating computer solutions to problems
Creating Computer Solutions to Problems

  • Analysis tools: IPO charts, pseudocode, flowcharts

  • To desk-check or hand-trace,use pencil, paper, and sample data to walk through algorithm

  • A coded algorithm is called a program

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Creating computer solutions to problems continued
Creating Computer Solutions to Problems (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Analyzing the problem
Analyzing the Problem

  • Analyze a problem to:

    • Determine the goal of solving it

      • Output

    • Determine the items needed to achieve that goal

      • Input

  • Always search first for the output

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Analyzing the problem continued
Analyzing the Problem (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Ipo charts
IPO Charts

  • Use an IPO chart to organize and summarize the results of a problem analysis

    • IPO:Input, Processing, and Output

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Ipo charts continued
IPO Charts (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Ipo charts continued1
IPO Charts (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Analyzing the problem continued1
Analyzing the Problem (continued)

  • First, reduce the amount of information you need to consider in your analysis:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Analyzing the problem continued2
Analyzing the Problem (continued)

  • Worse than having too much information is not having enough information to solve problem:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Analyzing the problem continued3
Analyzing the Problem (continued)

  • Distinguish between information that is missing and information that is implied:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Planning the algorithm
Planning the Algorithm

  • Algorithm: set of instructions that will transform the problem’s input into its output

    • Record it in the Processing column of the IPO chart

  • Processing item: intermediate value used by algorithm when processing input into output

  • Pseudocode is a tool programmers use to help them plan an algorithm

    • Short English statements

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Planning the algorithm continued
Planning the Algorithm (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Planning the algorithm continued1
Planning the Algorithm (continued)

  • Flowcharts are also used to plan an algorithm

    • Use standardized symbols

    • Symbols connected with flowlines

    • Oval: start/stop symbol

    • Rectangle: process symbol

      • Represents tasks such as calculations

    • Parallelogram: input/output symbol

      • Represents I/O tasks

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Planning the algorithm continued2
Planning the Algorithm (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Planning the algorithm continued3
Planning the Algorithm (continued)

  • A problem can have more than one solution:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Hints for writing algorithms
Hints for Writing Algorithms

This problem specification is almost identical to the one shown earlier in Figure 2-4

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Hints for writing algorithms continued
Hints for Writing Algorithms (continued)

You may use a portion of a previous solution to solve current problem

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Desk checking the algorithm
Desk-Checking the Algorithm

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Desk checking the algorithm continued
Desk-Checking the Algorithm (continued)

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Desk checking the algorithm continued1
Desk-Checking the Algorithm (continued)

  • Valid data is data that the programmer is expecting the user to enter

  • Invalid data is data that he or she is not expecting the user to enter

  • You should test an algorithm with invalid data

    • Users may make mistakes when entering data

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


The gas mileage problem
The Gas Mileage Problem

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


The gas mileage problem continued
The Gas Mileage Problem (continued)

  • After planning the algorithm, you desk-check it:

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Summary
Summary

  • Problem-solving typically involves analyzing the problem, and then planning, reviewing, implementing, evaluating, and modifying (if necessary) the solution

  • Programmers use tools (IPO charts, pseudocode, flowcharts) to help them analyze problems and develop algorithms

    • During analysis, you determine the output and input

    • During planning, you write the steps that will transform the input into the output

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Summary continued
Summary (continued)

  • After the analysis and planning, you desk-check the algorithm

    • Follow each of the steps in algorithm by hand

  • Coding refers to translating the algorithm into a language that the computer can understand

  • Before writing an algorithm, consider whether you have already solved a similar problem

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


Application lesson using the first steps in the problem solving process
Application Lesson: Using the First Steps in the Problem-Solving Process

  • Lab 2.1: Stop and Analyze

  • Lab 2.2:

    • Create a program that the salesclerks can use to calculate and display the required number of rolls

  • Lab 2.3:

    • The program must now display the number of single and double rolls of wallpaper

  • Lab 2.4: Desk-Check Lab

  • Lab 2.5: Debugging Lab

An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition


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