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International efforts at preservation The earth is, in the words of Garret Hardin, a spaceship. It is a closed system. As each subject is articulated in one country or region sympathetic listeners find similar concerns surrounding their homes. The Preservation Movement worldwide is such a recognition of the timeliness of saving.
The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings It is for all these buildings, therefore, of all times and styles, that we plead, and call upon those who have to deal with them, to put Protection in the place of Restoration, to stave off decay by daily care, to prop a perilous wall or mend a leaky roof by such means as are obviously meant for support or covering, and show no pretence of other art, and otherwise to resist all tampering with either the fabric or ornament of the building as it stands; if it has become inconvenient for its present use, to raise another building rather than alter or enlarge the old one; in fine to treat our ancient buildings as monuments of a bygone art, created by bygone manners, that modern art cannot meddle with without destroying. Thus, and thus only, shall we escape the reproach of our learning being turned into a snare to us; thus, and thus only can we protect our ancient buildings, and hand them down instructive and venerable to those that come after us." William Morris, 1877
Government support is a national development Until the 20th century architectural heritage and preservation was a matter of national concern only. Most national laws were only beginning to be written at the end of the 19th century to protect historic buildings. The first international agreements of consequence for historic buildings were the conventions for the protections of cultural heritage in the event of naval bombing adopted at the Hague in 1899 and 1907. Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War (Hague IX); October 18, 1907. Section IX, Article 5. In bombardments by naval forces all the necessary measures must be taken by the commander to spare as far as possible sacred edifices, buildings used for artistic, scientific, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick or wounded are collected, on the understanding that they are not used at the same time for military purposes. It is the duty of the inhabitants to indicate such monuments, edifices, or places by visible signs, which shall consist of large, stiff rectangular panels divided diagonally into two coloured triangular portions, the upper portion black, the lower portion white.
The Athens conference of 1931 First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments in Athens in 1931.
The Athens conference of 1931: Athens Charter First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Athens 1931 Organized by the International Museums office of the League of Nations (US did not sign) that first addressed the concept of international heritage and discussed historic restoration. Seven concepts: 1. International organizations for Restoration on operational and advisory levels are to be established. 2. Proposed Restoration projects are to be subjected to knowledgeable criticism to prevent mistakes which will cause loss of character and historical values to the structures. 3. Problems of preservation of historic sites are to be solved by legislation at national level for all countries. 4. Excavated sites which are not subject to immediate restoration should be reburied for protection. 5. Modern techniques and materials may be used in restoration work. 6. Historical sites are to be given strict custodial protection. 7. Attention should be given to the protection of areas surrounding historic sites.
Preservation practice The Congrèsinternationauxd'architecturemoderne(founded in 1928) met in Athens in 1933 and also discussed the issues of architectural heritage in a document edited and published in great secrecy by LeCorbusier in 1941 and later reedited in 1957. The resulting document laid out a 95-point program for planning and construction of rational cities, addressing topics such as high-rise residential blocks, strict zoning, the separation of residential areas and transportation arteries, and the preservation of historic districts and buildings. The key underlying concept was the creation of independent zones for the four 'functions': living, working, recreation, and circulation. WWII kills international preservation for fifteen years.
Modern International Preservation 1954. The Convention on the protection of Cultural Property in the event of armed conflict. The development of UNESCO [The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization] and the need to rebuild the destroyed buildings from the war gave new impulse to international cooperation. In 1957 the First International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings was held in Paris. 1. countries should establish a central organization for protecting historic buildings; and • 2. architects, town planners and archaeologists should co-operate to integrate the protection of historic buildings into town planning., Paris. Re-editing of the 1933 document.
The Venice Charter 1964 The Venice Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites 1. Concept of historic buildings extended to include groups of buildings.2. Conservation of buildings should not change ornamentation or layout.3. Restoration–only where necessary, but no reconstruction. New elements should be distinguishable.4. Elements of value from any period should be respected.5. Falsification in replacing parts should be ruled out6. rehab of archaeological sites should not alter buildings toenhance understanding.
ICOMOS [International Council on Monuments and Sites] Established in 1965 in Warsaw, Poland with the 25 nations that had signed the Venice Charter. By 1980 ICOMOS included representatives of 72 countries. 1. Encourage the preservation and development of monuments and sites.2. To arouse and develop the interest of the authorities and the general public of all countries with respect to their monuments, sites and cultural heritage in general.3. To constitute the international organization representing the administrative departments, institutions, and persons interested in the preservation.
The World Heritage List The World Heritage List includes 890 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value. American sites on the World Heritage List.
Differences In Preservation American preservation tends to put more importance on historical nature of site. European countries emphasizes artistic merit. 1. Almost no where is preservation as democratic as it is the United States. a. Almost nowhere does it use marketplace incentives.2. European and Asian preservation is highly centralized.3. In England rural preservation works because there is an ethic of rural stewardship.