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End Term Appraisal of DPIP

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  1. End Term Appraisal of DPIP Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad

  2. Structure of the presentation • Context • Approach • Emerging broad picture • Emerging detailed picture - Groups and their federations performance - Women Empowerment - Access to credit markets - Assets and Livelihoods - Well-being - Vulnerability & food security

  3. Contribution of DPIP - Groups and their federations performance - Women Empowerment - Access to credit markets - Assets and Livelihoods - Well-being - Vulnerability & food security

  4. Context of The Study • DPIP completed its cycle in its implementation. • Need to take stock of the contribution of the Project • Time to learn lessons for strengthening and replication

  5. Approach • Impact evaluation based on three rounds of surveys- Baseline, FUS-I and FUS-II • FUS-I developed many parameters of impact evaluation independent of the BLS • FUS-I also used recall method to construct BL data in some of the impact areas • Cross section and panel survey methods used in FUS-I • All the FUS I sample HHs revisited in FUS II • Comparison of FUS-II with FUS-I made to assess the contribution of the programme

  6. Contd.. • Phase I and II mandals considered for the impact assessment • Programme became universal, Program and Control samples strictly not comparable • Followed participants and non-participants of the programme • Used different methods in the Mid-term Appraisal to assess the contribution

  7. Contd.. • A 3 stage random sampling design • Srikakulam, Anantapur and Adilabad districts • 33 Program Mandals and 12 Control Mandals • 204 Program Villages and 60 Control Villages • Covered 2640 households, 1590 SHGs, 264 VOs and 48 MSs and 3 ZSs • Attrition rate 6%

  8. Impact areas • Women empowerment • Access to credit • Assets and livelihoods • Household well-being • Vulnerability and food security

  9. Emerging Broad View • Need for handholding of SHGs and their federations for some more time to come for making them self-reliant • Empowerment gone up significantly at the household and community level. • Linkages between empowered women and local governance institutions to be strengthened • Quantity and quality of credit has gone up.

  10. Emerging Broad View • Women’s share in savings and borrowing capacity gone up • Formal credit institution have become inclusive of poor • Risks managed well by restoring to savings and borrowings • Well being improved • Need to strengthen public institutions of health and education • Need to think of cluster based approach for strengthening the livelihoods of the poor

  11. SHGs and Their FederationsAn Assessment

  12. SHGS and Their Federations Structure of Presentation Status and trends of groups with regard to -Good Internal practices -Ultimate indicators of Group Health SHG performance vis-à-vis Best Practice Status and Trends of Federations with regard to -Good Internal practices

  13. Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices • Frequency of meetings • Best practice(BP) : Weekly meetings • 60% SHGs hold monthly meetings; 84 -ATP, 78-SKL, 65 – ADB • 16% SHGs hold weekly meetings;16-ATP, 6-SKL, 2-ADB • More SHGs had weekly meetings in 2003-04 • Decline thereafter : Shift to monthly meetings • Average No of meetings/annum : • 13.65 in 2003-04 • 10.46 in 2005-06

  14. Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices • Attendance at Meetings • BP : 90-100% • Performance : 90% in2003-04 81% in2005-06 • Anantapur at 94 in 2003-04 87 in 2005-06 • Srikakulam at 89 in 2003-04 85 in 2005-06 • Adilabad at 85 in 2003-04 67 in 2005-06

  15. Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices • Meeting Time and Location • BP : Fixed meeting day, time and place as per SHG norms • 82% SHGs meet in a fixed place 85 in SKL and ATP, 75 in ADB • 76% SHGs have fixed date and time; 94-ATP, 67-SKL, 63-ADB

  16. Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices • Frequency of Savings • BP : Weekly Savings • 87% SHGs save monthly • 98-SKL, 90-ADB, 73- ATP • 12% SHGs save weekly • 26-ATP, 7-ADB, 1-SKL • Average savings (Rs. monthly): • Now 31 • Before 34 • ATP- 33/31 • SKL-32/49 • ADB-27/27

  17. Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices • Financial Transactions • BP : Take place in meetings • 59% SHGs pay savings in meetings; • 88-ATP, 47-ADB, 37-SKL • Loan repayment in meetings: • 50% always practice • 82-ATP, 33-ADB, 29-SKL

  18. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Leadership Rotation • BP : Leadership Rotation once in 2 years Members preside weekly meetings on rotation • Few SHGs closer to BP • 73% SHGs have no rotation; • 77-SKL,76-ATP, 65-ADB • 10% had no change since inception; • 24-ADB, 5-SKL, 1- ATP • 8% change all leaders in 1 or 2 years

  19. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Independent Book Keeper • BP: No SHG leader as Bookkeeper literate member/villager as Bker • 91%SHGs have Bkers compared to 62% in 2003 • Type of BKer • 29% : literate villager • 20% : CC/CA as BKer • 23% : VBK/MBK as BKer • 14% : SHG leaders as BKer

  20. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Average No of SHGs/BKer • BP : One BKer/4-5 SHGs • Current : 6.3 SHGs/BKer • 5-ATP, 6-SKL, 9-ADB • Last : 6.9 SHGs • 4-ATP, 5-SKL, 9-ADB

  21. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Trained Bookkeeper • BP : All SHG BKers receive Initial and Refresher training • 57 % have trained BKer • 62-ATP, 54-SKL, 54-ADB • Bookkeeping • BP : No writing records outside the meetings • 27% of SHG BKers write records outside the meetings-Moving towards Good Practice overtime • 50-SKL, 18-ADB, 12-ATP

  22. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Cash Handling by BKer • BP : No cash handling by Bkers • Bker not to influence group decisions • 50% BKers handle cash • 57-SKL, 50-ATP,36-ADB • –practice on increase • only 13% BKers influence SHG decisions • 22-SKL, 12-ADB, 7-ATP • –practice on increase in SKL and ADB

  23. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Transparent Financial Transactions • Bank Transaction System • BP : members visit on rotation for remittances leaders visit for withdrawal • 70% SHGs have leaders remitting in banks • 88-ADB, 38-ATP, 90-SKL • Anantapur doing well : 60% SHGs have • members visiting on rotation- 10 in ADB, 9-SKL • 94% SHGs : Leaders withdraw cash from banks • 93-ADB, 95-ATP, 93-SKL

  24. Status and Trends of GroupsGood Internal Practices • SHG-Bank Linkage : distribution among Members • BP : Loans sanctioned based on members needs/MCP • 82% of SHGs received at least one bank loan • 89-SKL, 87-ATP, 72-ADB • 71% SHGs distribute equally among members • 93- SKL, 77-ADB, 46-ATP • 8% based on MCP, 23-ATP, 1-SKL • % based on need;30-ATP, 17-ADB, 5-SKL Internal Lending • BP : Rotation to all members based on need • 78% SHGs sanction internal loans based on need • 83-ATP, 76-ADB, 74-SKL

  25. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Bookkeeping • 90% SHGs keep Books • 91-ATP, 89-ADB, 88-SKL • 64% SHGs have meeting details available in minutes • 79-ATP, 78-SKL 24-ADB

  26. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • External Monitoring • Audit • 26% SHGs accounts audited • 33-SKL,30-ATP, 15-ADB • Critical rating done • 14% SHGs; 25-ATP, 16-SKL • Maasa Nivedika • BP : All SHGs prepare maasa nivedikas and submit to VO • 1%SHGs prepare maasa nivedika • 21-ATP, 12-SKL,

  27. Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices • Sanctions • BP: SHGs fix norms for fines for not attending meetings and not repaying loans • 22% SHGs have sanctions for not attending meetings; 41-ATP, 12-SKL, 11-ADB • 17% SHGs have sanctions for non-payment of thrift; 33-ATP, 8-SKL, 8-ADB • 19% SHGs have sanctions for non payment of loans; 34-ATP, 14-ADB, 6-SKL

  28. Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health • Member Attrition • 33% SHGs report attrition during last 3 years • 41-ATP, 31-SKL,26-ADB • Average % of attrition is low : 6%; 7-ATP, 5-SKL, 4-ADB Three major reasons for leaving • no longer interested : 23% ; 31-ATP, 19-ADB, 16-SKL • moved out of village : 24% ; 25-ATP, 23-ADB, 22-SKL • suspended for non payment of/not attending:11% • 12- ATP, 12- SKL, 9-ADB Distribution of members leaving SHG/poverty status • poor : 30% ; 40-SKL, 39-ATP, 4-ADB, • pop : 31% ; 44-SKL, 28-ATP, 24-ADB • not poor : 24% ; 69-ADB, 8-ATP, 7-SKL

  29. Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health • Financial Sustainability • Average income and expenditure of SHGs • ALL Dists : Income Rs. 1878 • Expenditure Rs. 351 Anantapur : • Income Rs. 5024 • Expenditures Rs. 621 • Srikakulam: • Income Rs. 177 • Expenditure Rs. 264 • Adilabad: • Income: Rs. 139 • Expenditure Rs. 140 • SHGs with surplus income 13% SHGs report surplus income; Uniform across all districts • Proportion of SHG loans/source : More from external sources • Banks : 58%, 70-SKL, 56-ADB, 48-ATP • CIF : 28% 37-ATP, 31-ADB, 15-SKL • DRDA : 4%

  30. Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health • Repayments (internal) Overall repayment rate 71% for 2004 48% for 2005 18% for 2006 - 83-ATP , 71-ADB, 60-SKL - 2004 - 54-ATP , 44-SKL, 38- ADB – 2005 - 27-SKL, 13-ADB, 11-ATP - 2006

  31. Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health • Group Sustainability Conflict Resolution 80-90% SHGs report no conflicts Major areas of conflict by those reported include: attendance at meetings, savings; loan sanction; loan repayment (this reported as frequently while all others were rare)

  32. Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health • Participation of eligible members in programs Most groups report low participation in programs RCL : Discontinued; 61% never participated Marketing : 20% participated in either input or output related activities Livestock Insurance : 7% Death and Disability Insurance : 20% Employment programme : 9% Land programmes : 3% either got title (0.24%) or got land restituted (1.3%) Adult Education programme : 12%

  33. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • Few Basic characteristics Average age of VOs : 3 yrs Average no of SHGs/VO : 14(BP 15-20/VO) VOs with own building : 62% VOs registered : 90% VOs filing IT returns : 4% VOs having MCPs : 64% VOs adopting a model village : 19%

  34. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • Conduct of Meetings General Body : BP: Once in 3 months 41% VOs conduct once/year, 67-SKL, 63-ADb, 14-ATP 22% conduct once in 3 months, 42-ATP, 7-SKL EC meetings :BP : Monthly 58% VOs hold monthly EC meetings 42-ADB, 59-ATP, 71-SKL RGB : 52% VOs hold monthly RGB meetings 58-ADB, 46-ATP, 57-SKL 38% VOs have no RGB, 38-ADB, 48-ATP, 21-SKL

  35. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • Attendance at Meetings BP: Attendance is always above 90% Average attendance EC meetings : 85% - ADB-92, ATP-86, SKL-80

  36. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • Constitution of VO BP : 2 members/SHG attend EC meeting 71% VOs have 2members/SHG 8.72% VOs have no norm • VO Agenda BP: Structured agenda fixed by VOGB CA/VBK not influence Practice indicates 55.5% VOs : all EC members 29.82% : VO office bearers 14.68% : CA/VBK

  37. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • VOs keeping Books Cash Book : 74% 4% increase since 2004 Loans and CIF receipt register : 64% 4% increase since 2004 Loans and CIF issue register : 64%; 3% increase since 2004 Loans and CIF repayment register: 55%; 4% increase

  38. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • Bookkeeper BP :VOs appoint CA/VBK to write records 97% VOs have Bkers in 2006 consistent increase from 22% in 2002

  39. Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices • External Monitoring Maasa Nivedika 50% VOs prepare maasa nivedika VO Audit: BP: All VOs complete annual audit, place report in VO meeting for approval 76% have audit done 69% VOs audited in 2006 VO rating : 17% VOs rated

  40. Household level StatusWomen Empowerment

  41. Introduction • Social empowerment should precede economic empowerment to handle poverty • Social and economic empowerment should ultimately result in reconfiguration of relations in both household and community • Women’s empowerment is measured in terms of their bargaining power

  42. Participation in Household Decision Making • Collective decisions has gone up significantly • Improvement in women’s access to financial resources, transformed men to share space in decision-making of savings and credit

  43. Contd… • Involvement of men in the preparation of micro- credit plan might have expanded the collective space • Collective spaces of decision-making proliferated into domains of economic and non-economic issues - Birth control - Decisions on food

  44. Contd.. • Men take care of children and cook food when women are busy • Stereotypes of gender division of labour seems to disappear slowly

  45. Autonomy of Women • Proportion of women obtaining permission to go for work increased significantly between MTA and now • Women share their info on all movements with their men • Contrary to situation in MTA

  46. Contd.. Why this u-turn behavior?

  47. Contd.. • Men realized that they got every benefit from the groups • No point of women investing time and money without flow of benefits from groups.

  48. Contd… • Increased use of coercive controls to negotiate with women - no positive improvements in attitudes of men in sharing spaces with women • Women afraid to disagree with their men and domestic violence increased • More time to bring attitudinal changes in men • Need for sensitizing men

  49. Impact of Empowerment(Livelihoods,Budget Allocations) • Share of budget allocated for clothing for women, fuel, lighting increased - indicates decline of drudgery of women • Budget share of food increased having favourable impact on women. • Gender sensitivities crept into budget allocations

  50. Contd… • Time women spend on family chores increased • May be women are spending quality time with their children, in contrast to the situation in MTA