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Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances Prof. Dr. Arno Frühwald University of Hamburg Centre for Wood Sience and Technology. BFH. World Forestry. World Forestry. Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breding.

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    1. Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances Prof. Dr. Arno Frühwald University of Hamburg Centre for Wood Sience and Technology

    2. BFH

    3. World Forestry World Forestry Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breding Forest Ecology and Forest Assessment Wood Biology Economics Wood Biology and Wood Protection Wood Technology Wood Physics and Mechanical Technology of Wood Wood Chemistry and chemical Technology of Wood Organisation of R&D and teaching in Hamburg University of Hamburg Federal Research Centre for Foresty and Forest Products National and international institution of R&D FB - Biology

    4. Study of wood sience, business and technology faculty Sem. Basic studies - natural sience - technical - economicalbasics ca. 120 canditates (2/3 1/3 ) 20 Students/ semester 3 Institutes chair Intermediate diploma Advanced studies - Wood as raw material - Wood - Wood trade and market Institutes 5 Special subjects: - Wood Biology - Wood Technology - Wood Chemestry - Economics - int. Forestry and Politics chair faculty University degree: Diplom-Holzwirt/in Final diploma Institutes 1,5 Diploma thesis chair

    5. New environmental challenges for Forestry and Forest Products Sector • sustainable management of resources - Rio conference, world climate conferences • reduced energy consumption • reduced Global Warming Potential • reduced emissions to air, water, soil • recycling of materials • biodiversity Driving forces: Kyoto-Protocol, Agenda 21

    6. emittance of trace gases into the atmosphere solar radiation absorption reflecion FCKW CO2 CH4 infrared- radiation Greenhouse Effect

    7. Green House Gases calculated as Carbon (C)

    8. Emissions in t CO2 per capita Germany: 11 t CO2 Luxembourg: 27 t CO2 USA: 20 t CO2 Finland: 12 t CO2 Canada: 16 t CO2 Great Britain: 10 t CO2 Sweden: 7 t CO2

    9. Kyoto-Protocol obligations (Basis 1990 emissions, target year 2008/2012) Europe: - 8 % Germany: - 21 % Austria: - 13 % USA: no interest Sweden: + 4 % Japan: - 6 % New Zealand: +- 0 %

    10. Life Cycle Assessment LCA is a method to describe the ecological importance of a product or service along it´s life cycle from graddle to grave. The method is described in the standards ISO/EN • 14.040 Principles of LCA • 14.041 Inventory Analysis (LCI) • 14.042 Impact Assessment (LCIA) • 14.043 Interpretation

    11. An inventory analysis Raw materials products emissions (incl. energy) to system boundary air water soil system under study Raw material Product manufacture Product use Incineration capital equipment energy auxiliary materials by-products

    12. Impact Categories GWP: Global Warming Potential AP: Actification Potential EP: Eutrophication HTP: Human Toxicity Potential AETP: Aquatic Toxicity Potential POCP: Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential TETP: Terrestric Toxicity Potential

    13. Material and energy for glue lam and construction solid wood for structural use

    14. 142 150 100 70 kg CO2-equivalents per m³ 54 50 11 7 0 drying overall forestry planning sawmilling Greenhouse gas emission of construction solid timber (GWP) Fixed CO2/m³: 925,5 kg

    15. 1,5 1,15 1,0 0,55 kg SO2-equivalents per m³ 0,5 0,5 0,075 0,03 0 drying overall forestry planning sawmilling Acidification Potential (AP) of construction solid timber

    16. Glue Lam CSL/Parallam LVL/OSB 300 360 360 13 13 65 55 100 80 80 Ecological aspects of beam structures moment of inertia 22.500 cm4 20.000 cm4 17.500 cm4 wood volume per 10m beam 0,70 m3 0,22 m3 0,26 m3 type of logs large diam. thinnings large d. 75% thinn. 25%

    17. Glue Lam CSL/Parallam LVL/OSB 300 360 360 13 13 65 55 100 80 80 Ecological aspects of beam structures moment of inertia 22.500 cm4 20.000 cm4 17.500 cm4 wood volume per10m beam 0,70 m3 0,22 m3 0,26 m3 type of logs large diam. thinnings large d. 75% thinn. 25% energy input 1.400 MJ 900 MJ 1.300 MJ fossil 57 % 37 % 50 % non-fossil 43 % 63 % 50 % CO2-Equiv. 33 kg 17 kg 27 kg

    18. Comparison of timber and non timber products 1 m² wall elements Source: Waltjen, R. et al. 1999

    19. Example: single family houses

    20. Example: single family houses No thermal utilisation of waste wood Thermal utilisation of waste wood

    21. GWP 100 Case A Case B Framework construction 95.000 80.000 96.000 Blockhouse 53.000 115.000 Brick house 108.000 Example: single family houses

    22. AP Case A Case B Framework construction 211 176 214 Blockhouse 118 256 Brick house 241 Example: single family houses

    23. EP Case A Case B Framework construction 18 15 18 Blockhouse 10 22 Brick house 20 Example: single family houses

    24. POCP Case A Case B Framework construction 5,4 4,5 5,5 Blockhouse 3,0 6,6 Brick house 6,2 Example: single family houses

    25. Impact potentials 10000 Steel wood & steel AP [t SO2 eq.] 8000 6000 4000 7613 EP [kg phosphate eq.] POCP [kg ethene eq.] 2000 648 196 0 1 2 3 -84 -278 -3264 -2000 -4000 Example: Simple (three-storey) buildings

    26. Steel Wood & Steel 4.000 3.410 t CO2 eq. 0 - 1.463 - 2.000 Example: Simple (three-storey) buildings GWP 100

    27. Example: Window frames

    28. Example: Window frames

    29. Example: Window frames

    30. energy for recycling 3.000 energy for manufacture 2.500 energy for production 2.000 MJ 1.500 1.000 500 0 - 500 Brick Cement Wood Example: Noise protection elements Energy consumption (PEI) Source: Richter, Künniger, 2001

    31. 3.000 2.500 2.000 MJ 1.500 1.000 500 0 - 500 Brick Cement Wood Example: noice protection elements Energy consumption (PEI) energy renewable energy fossil energy from waste Source: Richter, Künniger, 2001

    32. Energy consumption vs. Energy potential Consumption Energy potential in consump. potent.

    33. Thank you for listening Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit Tack för Uppmärksamheten Merci beaucoup pour votre attention Vi ringrazio per la cortese attenzione Muchas gracias por su atención

    34. Sequestration – forests + wood products Substitution effects - material substitution - energy substitution Carbon aspects

    35. solar energy H2O 6 O2 6 CO2 C6H12O6 (biomass) Photosynthesis

    36. Atmosphere 130 mill t carbon/year forests CO2-sinks CO2 equiv. 900 mill t carbon/year EUROPE OCEANS C-sink harvest fossile fuels replace fuelwood Closed carbon cycle

    37. C-sink data for wood species 1 m³ softwood (pine, spruce, larch) ~ 400 - 550 kg dry matter ~ 200 - 275 kg carbon 1 m³ hardwood (beach, oak, ash, others) ~ 400 - 700 kg dry matter ~ 200 - 350 kg carbon average in Europe 1 m³  500 - 600 kg dry matter or 250 - 300 kg carbon

    38. Carbon sink in Forests carbon stocks in trees and soils of European Forests ~ 20.000 Mio t C of which carbon stock in tree biomass ~ 8.000 Mio t C estimated net sequestration - in trees ~ 100 Mio t C/y - in soils ~ 30 Mio t C/y - total ~ 130 Mio t C/y total carbon emission Europe ~ 900 Mio t C/y (Source: Karjalainen et al. 2000)

    39. (political) C-Sinks in forests accepted by COP 6 / COP 7 Germany: 1,24 Mio t/y Austria: 0,63 Mio t/y Sweden: 0,58 Mio t/y Japan: 13 Mio t/y Canada: 12 Mio t/y Finland: 0,16 Mio t/y New Zealand: 0,2 Mio t/y Russia: 20 Mio t/y compared to physical sink acc to Karjalinen et al. 130 Mio t/y

    40. Carbon sink - wood products carbon stocks in wood products • wooden windows 25 kg C/unit • wooden floor (parquet) 5 kg C/m² • furniture per family 1.000 kg C/family • roof brick type house 1.000 - 3.000 kg C/unit • wooden house 10.000 - 25.000 kg C/unit

    41. C-sink wood products - Germany

    42. Expansion of German values to European sink Germany 80 Mio people - 334 Mio C-sink in wood/paper products EU (15) 375 Mio people 1.565 Mio C-sinks in wood products remarks: - building sector is different within EU regarding wooden buildings (North - South) - other wood utilization sectors differ much within the EU Total carbon Emission Europe 900 Mio t/y

    43. C-sink in wood products EU (15) Estimates based on German situation: total C-sink 1.565 Mio t net sequestration 13 - 16 Mio t/y Total C-emissions ~ 900 Mio t/y C-sink in wood products 3,5 - 4,5 % 40 - 50 % C-sink in forests 14 % 130 % in % of total emissions reduction obligation

    44. Average life time of wood products - Germany Results from inquires and field research: newspaper 0,2 years magazines 0,5 years books 25 years packaging 2 years furniture low price 10 years high price 30 years outdoor uses 15 years buildings decoration 30 years structural use 75 years average 33 years (weighed by volume)

    45. C-emissions during life cycle and C-sink 195 m² living space C-Emissions [t] manufacture 28,1 construction 0,6 maintenance of house 5,5 use (60 y) 43,7 recycling 3,3 transport 0,4 total 81,8 t C C-sink during 60 years 25,5 t C Source: Pohlmann 2002

    46. M M H M H M H H CO2 emission CO2-balance stored CO2 Use phase (60 Years) total CO2-emission production H: wooden house M: stone haus CO2-emission wood/stone house (Source: Pohlmann 2002)

    47. C-Sink in wooden houses Per house compared to brick type reduces C-emissions by 10 t  If additional 10 % of all houses in Europe would be build with wood, the C-emissions are reduced by 1,8 Mio. t (~ 2% of all C-emissions) (After enlargement of the EU an increase is to expept)

    48. SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS IN GENERAL: If wood products substitute non wood based products less fossil energy is required because of: • wood based products require less energy for manufacture • processing residues and products after use are a source for energy Substitution effects reduce fossil fuel consumption and therefore have a direct influence on GHG emission reduction („100% Kyoto-Protocol“)

    49. Substitution effects no wood utilisation C-sink remains Processing residues energy carbon and energy pool reduced carbon and energy pool Processing residues and wood products after use replace fossil energy timber products replace non-timber products energetic comparison (production energy) Substitution of material Substitution of fossil fuels

    50. energy input 3.000 MJ 1 m³ logs recycling or energy 7.200 MJ processing 0,8 m³ products 1 m³ for energy 9.000 MJ 0,2 m³ for energy 1.800 MJ Δ = 6.000 MJ/m³ energy surplus Energy aspects of wooden products