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Chapter 23

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Chapter 23

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  1. Chapter 23 War and Society 1914-1920 Web

  2. Europe’s Descent into War • Precipitating factor was assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, June 1914 by Princip in Sarajevo • Continental alliance system transformed into reason for war • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • Italy soon replaced by Ottoman Empire • Tripe Entente: Britain, France, Russia • Competition between nations also contributed • Especially between Britain and Germany • By 1914, conflict settled into stalemate because two sides evenly balanced

  3. Alliances ENGLAND FRANCE JAPAN RUSSIA A-H vs. SERBIA ITALY GERMANY BULGARIA

  4. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Europe Goes to War

  5. American Neutrality • U.S. would remain neutral and would trade with both camps • Nation, though, did favor Triple Entente in conflict • Close cultural ties to Britain • Stronger economic relationship with Britain than Germany

  6. U.S. Not Truly Neutral • Loans to Britain and France, but not to Germany • Little protest to British violations of U.S. Neutral rights • German submarine warfare • Designed to combat British dominance of the seas • Lusitania, May 1915 • Led to sharp protest from Wilson • Government refused to yield unless Britain allowed cargo to reach German ports • Seemed to show that War with Germany was inevitable

  7. Wilson Efforts to Avoid War • House-Grey memorandum, February, 1916 • Won applause from many Americans • American Union Against Militarism • Campaign in 1916 based on his peace efforts • Plans for international organization to maintain peace • Laid out principles for a lasting peace in early 1917 • Constituted new world order based on equality of all nations

  8. U.S. Intervention • German push for victory on land and at sea, early 1917 • To counter effect of Russian exit from war • Zimmerman telegram dashed Wilson’s hopes for negotiated settlement • Benevolent nature of war demonstrated by overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II in Russia • Helped Wilson justify intervention on side of democratic powers • Wilson war speech, April 1917 • Grand experiment to remake the world

  9. U.S. Intervention (cont.) • Impact of American entry • U.S. troops separate from Allied forces • American Expeditionary Force • Eased pressure on British and French on western front • Wilson’s Fourteen Points, January 1918 • To encounter effect of secret Allied treaties • Demonstrate that war was being fought for just purposes • War ended in November 1918

  10. U.S. Mobilizes for “Total” War • All of nation’s resources committed to war effort • Organizing American industry • Food Administration • Railroad Administration • Aircraft Production Board • Emergency Fleet Corporation • War Industries Board • Organizing American Labor • National War Labor Board • Organizing the American Military • Selective Service Act • Organizing American economy • Sharp increases in taxes • Fell hardest on wealthy, corporations • Liberty Bond sales • Mobilizing the American public • Committee on Public Information

  11. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Occupations with Largest Increase in Women

  12. Suppressing Wartime Dissent • Anti-German propaganda and harassment • Trading with the Enemy Act • Immigration Restriction Act • Espionage, Alien and Sedition Acts • Crackdown on radical labor unions • Role of National Americanization Committee

  13. The Search for International Peace • Paris Peace Conference, January 1919 • Wilson believed Fourteen Points would shape peace • His allies had other ideas • Some points totally jettisoned • Some accepted in part • Some compromised or watered down • Treatment of Germany also a subject of disagreement • Wilson favored leniency • Britain and France demanded harsh settlement • League of Nations would be vehicle for redressing treaty’s shortcomings • Usher in Wilson’s new world order • Covenant establishing League attached to peace treaty

  14. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Europe and Near East After the First World War

  15. US Involvement 1917-1919 • Wilson’s plan at first was  isolationism • 11 million German –Americans lived in America • Industrial Revolution was still developing in the US, we needed markets  began to sell to both sides, “Blood Money” • Reasons for America’s change in policy • German U-boats, R&D in the field, the Kaiser said there would be mistakes, many American ships were sunk • Lusitania, a cruise liner sank • Zimmerman Note to Mexico, promised California territory in exchange for declaration of war • Acts of industrial sabotage connected to the Kaiser, found proof in a briefcase in NY elevator, published in the newspapers • April 1917, US declares war • Goal of US, not conquest but immediate settlement • Trench warfare. Achieved inches not miles • Rapid rife artillery • Air power • Chemical weapons • Massive casualties

  16. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

  17. Major players:** • US  Wilson • Italy  Orlando • England  Lloyd George • France  Clemanceau -Japan and Russia were not seated at the Conference -Russia due to Bolshevik Revolution negotiated a peace w/ the Germans in 1917 and Japan was not the right creed and color -Japanese ministers leave Paris and promise to return, “……….. next time there’s a war, we’ll be on the right side.” -Italy  ports in Mediterranean, parts of Yugoslavia -France  Lebanon, Syria, Northern Africa, Saar valley and the Rhine Land England  Iran, Iraq, and Palestine Germany fault for the war, shame of the loss and war reparations which will cause economic depression in Europe Wilson sacrificed all the 14 points to save the League Based on the 5th point of settling colonial claims, others came to Paris:

  18. The Treaty Fight at Home • Wilson had to win ratification of the treaty-- and U.S. membership in the League-- in the U.S. Senate • Would not be easy • Senate dominated by Republican Party • “Irreconcilables” totally opposed to treaty and U.S. Membership in League • “Reservationists” wanted revisions before they would assent • Constitutional concerns • Hatred of Wilson • Wilson went on offensive when Republicans opposed amendments to treaty • Took case directly to the American people • Suffered stroke on speaking tour • Treaty finally defeated • U.S. did not join League of Nations

  19. Unrest in American Society after the War • Labor-management conflicts • Paralyzing postwar strikes • Authorities portrayed as anti-American and possibly Communist-inspired • Postwar Red Scare • Appeal of Socialism • Ideological affinity with Bolsheviks in Russia • Government crackdown in dissent and radicalism • Helped by newly formed American Legion • Palmer raids against suspected radicals and subversives • Racial conflict and the rise of black nationalism • War aroused expectations in black soldiers that were not fulfilled • Immediate postwar period rife with race riots • Role of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association • Fostered black nationalism, separatism,and self-sufficiency • Left enduring legacy Web