human exposure to naled mosquito control pesticides florida 2004 n.
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human exposure to naled mosquito control pesticides florida 2004
Human Exposure to naled mosquito control pesticides, Florida 2004.

A. J. Becker, MPH, PhD 1, Z. Duprey, DVM, MPH 2, S.D. Rivers, MS 1, G. Luber, MA, PhD 2, C. Blackmore, DVM, PhD 1, Carol Rubin, DVM, MPH 2. (1) Bureau of Community Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health, 4052 Bald Cypress Way, Tallahassee, FL 32399. (2) National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS F-46, Atlanta, GA 30341

florida s public health response
Florida’s Public Health Response
  • Request aerial spraying with mosquito adulticide (naled)
  • Invite CDC to assist in assessing human pesticide exposure
spraying
Spraying

Took place on the evening of October 4, 2004. Naled was applied at 2/3 an ounce per acre, covering approximately 228,000 acres of St. Johns County.

methods
Methods
  • Prospective study design
    • assessment of a baseline prior to determining exposure
concentration vs time

Blood

Toxicant/Metabolite

Urinary Metabolite

Concentration

1

10

100

1000

Time (Days)

Concentration vs time

Post-Exposure Fate of a Nonpersistent Chemical in Blood and Urine

methods1
Methods
  • Selection of Participants- Randomly chosen census blocks from 5 proposed spray areas.
  • DOH/CDC Teams- Teams consisted of one FLDOH and one CDC member and an attempt was made to have one male and one female per team. The teams were trained on how to recruit and complete questionnaires.
  • Participants- Participants were required to meet the following criteria:
  • - 18 years of age or older
  • - Able to speak English
  • - Able to give informed consent
  • - In the county during the spray event
participant s questionnaire and sample collection
Participant’s Questionnaire and Sample Collection
  • Signed consent form
  • Pre-spray questionnaire + urine specimen,
  • Five post-spray collection cups and instructions on collecting, labeling and storing the samples
  • Collections at 8 h increments (morning, noon and night).
  • Teams returned two days post-spray to collect the samples and administer the post-questionnaire.
pre exposure questionnaire
Pre-Exposure Questionnaire
  • In the past 3 days…
    • Handle or apply fertilizer
    • Done farm field work, such as harvesting or weeding, worked in a packing or farm stand with raw fruits, vegetables, or flowers
    • Worked in a nursery or greenhouse
    • Worked in a cannery or food processing plant
    • Done lawn or other landscape maintenance
    • Applied flea or tick shampoo, dips, powders, or flea collarson pets
    • Eaten fresh fruit or vegetables
    • Experienced pesticide-poisoning like illness
post exposure questionnaire
Post-Exposure Questionnaire

Added questions:

  • From the spray time to 12 hours post spray, how many hours were you in the county?
  • Did you see or hear the spray plane?
  • Did you attempt to avoid contact with the mosquito spray?
    • Close all windows
    • Turn the air conditioning to recirculate

– Clean off all lawn furniture before using

– Stay indoors for at least 1 hour after spraying

– Clean off all children’s toys before they use them

– Wash all garden vegetables before eating or serving

slide15
Dana Henehan, from CDC, aliquots the urine samples before shipping them to the CDC/NCEH laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia
analysis organophosphate metabolites
AnalysisOrganophosphate metabolites
  • Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MSMS).
  • Dimethylphosphate- Non-specific naled metabolite
  • Other organophosphate metabolites tested in lab.
analysis
Analysis
  • N > urine organophosphate metabolite levels post-spray
  • N < decreases in urine metabolite levels post-spray
  • Compare metabolite levels to household and workplace exposure questionnaires
  • Compare metabolite levels to symptoms reported comparing pre and post samples
st john s participation and completion rates
St John’s participation and completion rates
  • A total of 626 individuals were contacted by the 12 teams and 235 (37%) agreed to participate. Of those 235, 210 completed the study, an 89% study completion rate.
age and gender demographics
Age and gender demographics
  • Age (n=204)

Mean: 50.19, Range 18-78

  • Sex (n=205)

Male: 92 (44.9%)

Female: 113 (55.1%)

area participant s residence
Area participant's residence
  • N=203
  • Hastings: 42 (20.7%)
  • Jacksonville: 23 (11.3%)
  • Ponte Verda Beach: 11 (5.4%)
  • St. Augustine: 125 (61.6%)
  • Switzerland, FL: 2 (1.0%
risk factors
Pre

Eat Fruit & Veg- 72%

Lawn- 35.6% (73)

Handled-18.5% (38)

Flea- 7.8% (16)

Field Work- 3.4% (7)

Fruit Stand-0.5% (1)

Post

Eat Fruit & Veg- 72%

Lawn- 20% (40)

Handled- 8.5% (17)

Flea- 3.5% (7)

Field Work- 2% (4)

Fruit Stand- 0.5% (1)

Risk Factors
post behaviors
Post Behaviors
  • Saw plane- 45% (91)
  • Closed windows- 67% (136)
  • AC to recirculate- 58% (117)
  • Wiped lawn furniture- 4.5% (9)
  • Stayed indoors- 58% (117)
  • Wiped toys- 1.5% (3)
symptoms raw results
Pre symptoms

Headaches 18%(37)

Dizziness 6%(12)

Nausea 5%(10)

Abdominal Pain5%(10)

Weakness 4%(9)

Excess tearing 4%(9)

Trembling hands3%(6)

Post symptoms

Headaches 13% (26)

Nausea 5% (10)

Abdominal Pain 4% (9)

Dizziness 3% (7)

Excess tearing 2% (4)

Diarrhea 2% (4)

Weakness 2% (4)

Trembling hands 2% (3)

Symptoms Raw Results
pesticide exposure reported to pesticide exposure surveillance program pesp
Pesticide Exposure Reported to Pesticide Exposure Surveillance Program (PESP)
  • Two complaints

a. Small child waiting for the bus the next morning developing respiratory symptoms.

b. Skateboarders with irritation to the upper respiratory tract, eyes stinging and skin burning (They reportedly observed the plane fly over).