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Adulthood and aging module 16. Learning goals: . Early Adulthood Transitions and the Social Clock Physical Changes and Transitions Cognitive Changes and Transitions Social Changes and Transitions. Emerging into adulthood :. Age identity exploration: deciding who you are

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learning goals
Learning goals:
  • Early Adulthood Transitions and the Social Clock
  • Physical Changes and Transitions
  • Cognitive Changes and Transitions
  • Social Changes and Transitions
emerging into adulthood
Emerging into adulthood:
  • Age identity exploration: deciding who you are
  • Age of instability: the time when you change from place to place and from job to job.
  • Age of self focus:deciding who to be with, where to go and what to do.
  • Age of feeling between: you still don’t feel like an adult.
  • Age of possibilities: full of optimism and hopes
social clock
Social clock
  • The concept of the social clock describes societal expectations for the time at which people are expected to marry, have children, and accomplish other life tasks.
  • The social clock differs for each culture; it usually deals with significant changes in life that most people experience-
social clock in other cultures
Social clock in other cultures
  • For example, 40% of brides in Jordan are in their teens while they only constitute 3% of brides in Hong Kong.
  • Another example is the age for retirement; the following is the percentage of men over 65 in the work force--Western Europe, 10%, U.S., 16%, Japan, 36%, and Mexico, 69%.
  • Another difference may be the time to leave home; the U.S., most people leave home after graduation from high school or college, but in Korea, most people live in their parents' homes until they get married (some still don't leave after that).
midlife crisis
Midlife Crisis
  • This term is usually connected to age-linked stages such the "midlife crisis". The strange thing is that events associated with the term "midlife crisis" do not happen in "midlife".
stereotype of midlife crisis in men
Stereotype of midlife crisis in men
  • The stereotype of a man with a midlife crisis is getting a young girlfriend or a sports car.
  • For example, divorce occurs mostly to couples in their twenties while suicide is committed by people in their seventies and eighties.
  • However, a survey taken by 10,000 men and women between the ages of 33 and 54 shows that men experience an emotional crisis around the age of 36 and 42 while women do not experience a significant change except a small emotional instability in their early 50s.
early adulthood physical changes
Early adulthood physical changes
  • Early adulthood is the period between the ages of 20-35 years. .
  • Physical Functioning
  • Peak of strength, energy, and endurance
  • Body functions are fully developed by mid twenties
  • Senses are sharpest
  • Health
  • Most have no chronic conditions or impairments
  • Most medical visits are for injuries and pregnancy
early adulthood changes cont
Early adulthood changes cont.
  • Death Rates
  • Men are more apt to die from accidents than women
  • African-Americans have twice the death rate of Caucasians.
  • U.S rate = 21.9 per 100,000 men
  • Japanese rate = 0.5 murders per 100,000 men
physical changes during middle adulthood
Physical changes during middle adulthood:
  • Middle adulthood is the period between the ages of 36-64 years.
  • Sensory and Motor Functioning
  • Sexual and Reproductive Functioning
  • Hearing loss for high-pitched sounds
  • Men have twice loss rate as women
  • Ability to focus declines
  • Loss of near vision
  • Decline in visual acuity-sharpness of vision
  • Need more brightness
middle adulthood physical changes cont
Middle adulthood physical changes cont.
  • Motor Functioning
  • Strength and coordination decline
  • Due to loss of muscle mass, replaced by fat
  • Reaction time slows, especially for motor responses
  • Experience makes up for physical changes
  • Decline of reproductive capacity
  • Women: ability to bear children ends
  • Men: can father children, but have reduced fertility
  • Both experience decline in sex hormones
women in middle adulthood
Women in middle adulthood:
  • Menopause
  • Cessation of ovulation and menstruation
  • Occurs one year after last menstrual period
  • Less production of estrogen
  • Periods become irregular
  • Hot flashes due to expansion and contraction of blood vessels
men in middle adulthood
Men in middle adulthood
  • Changes begin 10 yrs later than women
  • Enlargement of prostrate gland
  • Causes problems with urination
  • Testosterone levels decline gradually
  • Sperm count declines, slower motility of sperm
  • Less frequent erections & less powerful ejaculations, takes longer to recover
  • Minority experience erectile dysfunction (impotence)
  • Multiple causes due to illness, stress, health habits
late adulthood physical changes
Late adulthood Physical changes
  • Late adulthood is the period between the age 65 and older.
  • mental illness is less common among older adults than younger adult   
  • Dementia: physiologically based cognitive and behavioral deterioration
  • Increases with age, but has many possible causes
  • 80% of dementia caused by disease, not reversible
  • Hypertension, strokes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s
  •  Alzheimer’s is fatal disease with no cure
  • Progressive, degenerative brain disorder
cognitive changes
Cognitive changes
  • Fluid intelligence peaks during early adulthood and then declines
  • Ability to apply mental powers to new problems
  • Perceiving relationships, forming concepts, drawing inferences
  • Decline probably due to changes in brain
  • crystallized intelligence improves through middle age and on
  • Ability to remember and use information acquired over a lifetime
  • Depends on education and culture
  • Uses stored information and automatic processing
intelligence with age
Intelligence with age:
  • Fluid intelligence:
  • Is our ability to reason speedily and abstractly we use this type of intelligence to solve logic problems like sudoku.
  • This kind of intelligence tends to decrease during late adulthood.
  • Crystallized intelligence:
  • Is our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills and it tends to increase with age.
social changes and transitions
Social Changes and transitions
  • You have to choose a career and then a job .
  • Intimate attachment is vital to a happy adulthood.
  • Love last longer when you have
  • Shared emotional support(empathy when things go wrong and material support)
  • intimate self-disclosure ( sharing embarrassing moments or deep secrets)
  • Similar interests (leisure activities and values.)
dying and death
Dying and death
  • Many terminal ill patients end up in hospice care instead of impersonal hospital care.
  • When death is sudden and unexpected, grief and subsequent depression can be particularly hard to handle for the relatives
  • The grief of women is five times greater than men’s grieve.