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Principle of disinfection. Disinfection lectures. Principle of disinfection Individual disinfection processes Water and wastewater disinfection (w/disinfection kinetics) Air disinfection and disinfection on surfaces Disinfection on infectious solids (biosolids). Definitions.

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Disinfection lectures
Disinfection lectures

  • Principle of disinfection

  • Individual disinfection processes

  • Water and wastewater disinfection (w/disinfection kinetics)

  • Air disinfection and disinfection on surfaces

  • Disinfection on infectious solids (biosolids)


Definitions
Definitions

  • Sterilization: A process intended to remove or destroy all viable forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores.


Definitions1
Definitions

  • Disinfection: The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical and chemical means.

  • Disinfection is less lethal process than sterilization because it destroys most recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms such as bacterial spores.


Definitions2
Definitions

  • Preservation: The process by which chemical or physical agents prevent biological deterioration of substances.


Definitions3
Definitions

  • Sterilizer: An agent that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life in the inanimate environment, including all forms of vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, fungal spores, and viruses.


Definitions4
Definitions

  • Disinfectant: An agent that frees from infection, usually a chemical agents but sometimes a physical one, such as x-rays or ultraviolet light, that destroy disease or other harmful microorganisms but may not kill bacterial spores. It refers to substances applied to inanimate objects.


Definitions5
Definitions

  • Sanitizer: An agent that reduces contaminants in the inanimate environment to level considered safe as determined by Public Health Ordinance, or that reduces the bacterial population by significant numbers where public health requirements have not been established.


Definitions6
Definitions

  • Antiseptics: An agent that opposes sepsis, putrefaction, or decay by preventing or arresting the growth of microorganisms.

    • Antiseptic products are applied on or in the living body of humans or other animals.

  • Antibiotics: an organic chemical substance produced by microorganisms that has capacity in dilute solutions to destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms.

    • It is usually used as a chemitherapeutant and must be low in toxicity while effective against microorganisms.



Common sterilizers and disinfectants
Common sterilizers and disinfectants

  • Sterilizer

    • Most heat (>121 oC)

    • Dry heat (> 160 oC)

    • Ionizing radiation

  • Disinfectant

    • Physical

      • Ultraviolet radiation

      • Hydrostatic pressure

    • Chemical

      • Alcohols

      • Phenols

      • Quaternary ammonium compounds

      • Glutaraldehyde

      • Iodine and iodine compounds

      • Chlorine species (free chlorine, chloramines, and chlorine dioxide)

      • Ozone


Mechanisms of sterilizers and disinfectants
Mechanisms of sterilizers and disinfectants

  • Sterilizer

    • Moist and dry heat: protein denaturation, enzyme inhibition, RNA and DNA breakdown

    • Ionizing radiations: single or double-strand breakage in DNA

  • Disinfectants

    • Ultraviolet radiation: thymine dimers, various photoproducts (5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine, TDHT, pyrimine-(6-4)-pyrimidone,…)

    • Chemical disinfectants: protein denaturation, enzyme inhibition, breakdown of nucleic acids


Mode of action of chemical disinfectants
Mode of action of (chemical) disinfectants

  • Adsorption on the microbes’ surface

  • Diffusion through the surface

  • Binding to the vulnerable sites (e.g. plasma membrane, cytoplasmic proteins, nucleic acids, and so on)

  • Disruption of the vulnerable sites

  • Injury and death of the microbes








Components of algal cell walls
Components of algal cell walls

  • Cellulose

  • Silica or calcium carbonate or polysaccharide



Surface structure of bacterial endospores
Surface structure of bacterial endospores

  • Exosporium: a thin protein cover

  • Spore coat: layers of spore-specific proteins

  • Cortex: loosely cross-linked peptidoglycan

  • Core: core cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, nucleoid, ribosomes, and others

  • Remarkable physical barrier against sterilization and disinfection

    • Survive up to 150 oC with dry heat

    • Extremely resistant to ultraviolet, strong acid and bases, and chemical disinfectants


Structure of giardia cysts
Structure of Giardia cysts


Surface structure of giardia cysts
Surface structure of Giardia cysts

  • An inner membrane

  • A thick (0.3 µm) outer filamentous portion

  • Filaments

    • 7-20 nm in diameter

    • Protein and a unique carbohydrate (ß(1-3)-N-acetyl-D-galactopyranosamine)

    • Strong interchain interaction and tightly packed meshwork

  • Remarkable physical barrier against most chemical disinfectants


Surface structure of cryptosporidium oocyst
Surface structure of Cryptosporidium oocyst


Surface structure of cryptosporidium oocyst1
Surface structure of Cryptosporidium oocyst

  • Glycocalyx

    • 82 % carbohydrate, 17 % protein, and trace fatty acid

  • Outer oocyst wall

    • Multilaminate glycoprotin, lipid, and lipid conjugates

  • Central lipid layer

  • Inner oocyst layer

    • Cross-linked glycoprotein

    • Outer and inner zone

  • Remarkable physical barrier against most chemical disinfectants




Surface structure of ascaris eggs
Surface structure of Ascaris eggs

  • Outer surface: protein and filamentous fibers

  • Outer limited membrane

  • Chitinous zone

  • Inner limited membrane

  • Considerable physical barrier against most chemical disinfectants


Factors in antimicrobial processes
Factors in antimicrobial processes

  • Target microorganisms

  • The media to be treated

  • The intended use of the media

  • Presence of interfering materials in the media


Antimicrobial products
Antimicrobial products

  • Regulated by EPA

  • 5000 antimicrobial products (1997) with 256 antimicrobially active ingredient

    • 19 % sanitizers

    • 80 % disinfectants

    • 1% sterilizers


Selection criteria chemical antimicrobial agents
Selection criteria (chemical antimicrobial agents)

  • Antimicrobial efficacy

  • Corrosivity

  • Chemical hazard

  • Environmental concerns

  • Stability