PSYCHOPATHY whAT YOU THOUGHT ABOUT HUMANS WAS NOT TRUE..
Conceptualizing Psychopathy • Insanity without delirium(Philippe Pinel) • Behaviour w/o remorselessness • The Mask of Sanity(Hervey Cleckley) • An intelligent person • Poverty of emotions • No sense of shame, superficially charming, manipulative, irresponsible behaviour • Without Conscience(Robert Hare) • Intra-species predators • Charming, manipulative, violent • Modern Definition • Psychopathy is a personality disorder • A constellation of symptoms
Defining Psychopathy All Offenders (100%) Psychopaths (10-25%) APD (65-80%) Hart (2000)
Defining Psychopathy • Antisocial Personality or Psychopathy • Most (not all) psychopaths are antisocial personalities BUT • Not all antisocial personalities are psychopaths
Measuring Psychopathy Factor 1: Interpersonal/ Affective Features Factor 2: Socially Deviant Lifestyle • Narcissistic & dominant • Low empathy & anxiety • Impulsive & irresponsible • Delinquent & antisocial S.D.Hart (2000)
Psychopathy Interpersonal * Arrogant * Deceitful Affective * Lacks Emotion * Lacks Empathy Lifestyle * Boredom * Parasitic *Irresponsible • Antisocial • * Early Beh Prob • Juvenile Delinquency • Criminal Versatility Defining Psychopathy Factor 1 Factor 2
DEFINITIONS • Difficulties processing, understanding and using emotional material • Deficit in processing emotional information • Their linguistic processes seem relatively superficial and the subtle more abstract meanings and nuances of language seem to escape them (Cleckly, 1976, Hare 2003) • He knows the words but not the music (Hare, 2003)
MOVIE CLIP • http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/i-psychopath/
The psychopath • Fail to understand the affective meaning of words (emotional words) but understand the dictionary meaning of words • They take longer to process emotional words rather than neutral words (like a second language) • They have more difficulty recognizing fearful content in spoken language • Psychopaths were more likely to attribute happiness to an individual who had committed intentional harm (when evaluating emotional stories and trying to determine how someone would feel) • Psychopaths rely on listeners to pay attention to how things are said more than what was said
PERSONALITY DISORDER VS DISTINCT PATHOLOGY • Biological studies consistently show differing reactions inbrain scans • Psychopathy may be associated with anomalies in various structures and circuits in the brain
Biology of Psychopaths • Genetic Factors • Temperament • Brain Structures • Dysfunction of the paralimbic system--a system that includes parts of the temporal and frontal lobes (2006, Kiehl) • Defects in frontal lobe processing • Amygdala dysfunction (abnormal structure, 2011, Boccardi) • Differences in temporal gyrus (differences in perceptions of emotions in facial stimuli) • Associated with abnormalities ofprocessing conceptually abstract material.
Biology of psychopaths • Peripheral Nervous System Research • Low skin conductance (attenuated cues of impending pain or punishment – “I just put it out of my mind”, less reaction to distressing images) • Autonomic Nervous System Research • Autonomically and cortically underaroused • Deficient in avoidance learning (show little fear in anticipation of an unpleasant or painful stimuli) • Integration of activities between the two hemispheres may be deficient
CRITERIA FOR PSYCHOPATHY ACCORDING TO HARE (2003) • Hare PCL-R most widely used measure for Psychopathy • Gold standard for assessment • Important element in trials involving serious offenses • Conducted by well trained professionals • Based on file review or clinical interview (with collateral sources)
FACTOR 1: Interpersonal/ Emotional Glibness/Superficial Charm Grandiose Pathological Lying Conning/Manipulative Lack of Remorse or Guilt Callous/Lack of Empathy Shallow Affect Failure to Accept Responsibility for Own Actions FACTOR 2: Socially Deviant Lifestyle Need for Stimulation Parasitic Lifestyle Poor Behavioural Controls Early Behavioural Problems Lack of Realistic, Long-term Goals Impulsivity Irresponsibility Juvenile Delinquency Revocation of Conditional Release Also…Criminal Versatility; Many Short Term Marital Relationships, Promiscuous Sexual Behavior Definition according to Hare (PCL-R)
Psychopathy in children? • Concerns • Labeling at young age • More likely to be transferred to adult court system • Self-fulfilling prophecy with providers • Importance of early identification • Treatment • Avoid societal and individual repercussions
THE WHITE COLLAR PSYCHOPATH • CEO’s, corporate presidents, Stock market, Fraudsters … • 4% of corporate professionals had a PCL R score of 30 + (N = 203; Babiak, 2010) • If you were a psychopath who wanted to avoid jail where would you go?
Offending Patterns #1 Type of Criminality • Psychopaths are more likely to commit violent offences • Psychopaths were five times more likely to commit a violent offence (Serin & Amos, 1995). • Psychopathic offender, compared to non-psychopathic offender, more likely to kill males who are strangers. • The violence of psychopaths has atypical motivations • Instrumental Violence, Sadistic • Impulsive, Opportunism
Offending Patterns #2 Stability of Criminality • About ½ of criminal psychopaths show a reduction in non-violent crime by age 35 or 40 years • Harpur and Hare (1994) • Offenders who ranged in age from 16 to 70 years assessed on the PCL-R • Scores on Factor 2 of the PCL-R decreased with age. • Scores on Factor 1 of the PCL-R were stable • Age-related changes in behaviour are not related with changes in the affective/interpersonal traits.
Offending Patterns #3 Frequency of Criminality • Psychopaths are high-density offenders. They commit more crimes, have higher rates of recidivism, and re-offender faster than other offenders. • Hart, Kropp, and Hare (1988): • Administered PCL-R to 231 inmates • High PCL-R – 90% re-offended • Mid PCL-R – 60% re-offended • Low PCL-R – 30% re-offended
Risk • Psychopathy is the biggest predictor of violent reoffending • High PCL-R offenders are 2.5 Times more likely to get parole (Porter, 2009) • SEXUAL DEVIANCE + PSYCHOPATHY = HUGE PROBLEM!
Hart et al. (1988) offenders on conditional release – any reoffense Survival Curves Low Middle High
Quinsey et al. (1993) Survival Curves for male rapists and child molesters Non Psychopaths Psychopaths
WORKING WITH THE PSYCHOPATH • DOES TREATMENT WORK? • WHAT TO EXPECT? • HOW TO REACT? • IN PEOPLE WITH A LONG HISTORY OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIORS, RULE OUT PSYCHOPATHY FIRST
Treatment and Psychopathy • Group therapy and insight-oriented therapy make psychopathy worse • Learning about empathy can help them to develop better ways of manipulating, deceiving and using people • Doesn’t help them understand themselves. • Other treatment possibilities? • Don’t focus on characteristics that can’t be changed (e.g. not emotional reactions, empathy). • Focus on their motivations (not altruism, but short-term self-interest, excitement, sense of power) (Thronton & Blud, 2007) • Focusing on how behaving prosocially can get them what they want; focus on their strengths (Hare, 2003) • Give them those reinforcements for good behaviors… (make sure that it is a true reinforcement for THEM – not what you would assume would be a reinforcement!)
SELF CARE WHEN WORKING WITH PSYCHOPATHS • Recall last clip of movie… • Very difficult to not attend to information provided to you by psychopaths • Recall their need for manipulation • Have a set plan before you enter the room • Relaxation, strong inner self-concept, let some things go • Identify your vulnerabilities before hand • One psychopath a day is lots to deal with …
Want more information? • www.hare.org • for research papers on many facets of Psychopathy