APA Tip of the Day: Citations in topic sentences • Students often learn in English 101 classes to start a paragraph with a topic sentence that provides a general idea of your topic and/or your argument (thesis statement). • While this is helpful, avoid “blanket statements” that (a) may be so general they are untrue and (b) that you cannot provide support for from the professional literature.
Example of ‘blanket statements’ • Teachers enter the field because they care about the learning of their students. • Assessments are an ever growing part of students’ lives.
Announcements • Reading review due now. • The book review assignment is due next week – presentations will be INFORMAL. • There is not a readings review assigned for next week. • Make an appointment to see me or send me an email if you have questions.
April 10, 2014 The social construction of disability from the perspective of bilingual special education Today’s Readings: de Valenzuela, Copeland, Qi, & Park (2006) and Zetlin, Padron, & Wilson (1996)
Social Construction of Disability • Training • Adaptive devices • Compensatory strategies • Environment • Expectation • Attitudes • Assumptions • Cultural beliefs Condition Disability
Social Construction of Disability • Ill-prepared or poor teachers • Inconsistent or no access to high-quality ALS • Negative assumptions about child’s ability, home, and family resources Condition: Bilingual Minority Low SES Disability: LD BD CommDis Not Gifted
Disproportionate Representation - Definition What is disproportionate representation?
Definition Either a higher or lower percentage of students from a particular ethnic group in special education than is found in the general student population. (Yates, 1998)
Representative Studies; • Mercer, 1973 • Heller, Holtzman, & Messick, 1982 • Ortiz & Yates, 1983 • Chinn & Hughes, 1987 • Harry, 1994 • Losen & Orfield, 2002 • Donovan & Cross, 2002
Think-Pair-Share Is disproportionate representation in special education a problem?
Common Arguments: • Minority students are disproportionately represented in Head Start – deliberately. • Even if students don’t “really” have a disability, they can get extra help through special education.
Potential Problems: • Potentially negative effects of stigmatizing labels on students, • Restricted access to the general education settings, and • Lack of consistent and conclusive evidence that special education programs are effective. Hosp & Reschly, 2003
De Valenzuela et al (2006) -- Purpose of the Study: Relationships between student ethnicity and language proficiency status with: • Number and type of disability labels, and • Placement in different educational settings.
De Valenzuela et al (2006) – Results: African American, Hispanic, Native American, and ELL students were disproportionately represented in most special education exceptionality categories: • Over represented in stigmatized categories. • Under represented in socially valued exceptionality (gifted).
Results continued: Examples:
Results, cont.: • There was a significant difference in the number of disability labels between ethnic groups. • African Americans were identified with more disability labels than were White students.
Additional Findings: African American, Hispanic, Native American, and ELL students were placed in more segregated settings than White, Asian/PI, Other, and non-ELL students.
Educational Settings: • General education classrooms 80% or more of the time. • Resource room placement 20-60% of the time. • Separate class 60% or more of the time. (segregated placement)
Summary • Minority and ELL students over represented in stigmatized exceptionality categories. • Minority and ELL students under represented as gifted. • Minority and ELL students educated in the most segregated settings.
Quick Write: In what ways might coming from a culturally and linguistically diverse background be construed by school personnel as a deficit? What does this have to do with the social construction of disability?
Small Group activity Discuss how social characteristics of an individual or group, such as SES, ethnicity, gender, age, etc., can interactively contribute to an individual's status as able/disabled, especially in schools. Then consider how an individual’s status as able/disabled might impact future educational opportunities.