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EDM (Theory and) Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model. December 5, 2012 Frank Rathmann (on behalf of the BNL-EDM and JEDI collaborations ) DISCRETE 2012, JINR, Lisboa , Portugal. Outline.

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Edm theory and experiment search for new physics beyond the standard model

EDM (Theory and) Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model

December 5, 2012 Frank Rathmann

(on behalf oftheBNL-EDMandJEDI collaborations)

DISCRETE 2012, JINR, Lisboa, Portugal


Outline
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Introduction the big challenges
Introduction: The bigchallenges

Conventional HEP wisdom, but there is more than that …

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Introduction: Physics Frontiers

Search for

theoriginof

mass („Higgs“),

SUSY

Secrets of

neutrinos

Energy

Intensity

Frontiers of

Physical

Sciences

Cosmic

Complexity

Quest for

„Dark Matter“

and

„Dark Energy“

Precision

(In-)stability

of the

proton

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Introduction: Precision Frontier

ESPP, Cracow,

September 2012

A most promising additional frontier: Precision

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Introduction: Precision Frontier

Example: Neutron (nEDM)

Adaptedfrom:

Nature,

Vol 482 (2012)

Search forElectric Dipole Moments (EDM) of fundamental particles

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Outline1
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics: Fundamental Particles

Charge symmetricNoEDM ()

: MDM

: EDM

Do particles(e.g., electron, nucleon) have an EDM?

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


EDMs: DiscreteSymmetries

Not Charge symmetric

(aligned w/ spin)

Permanent EDMs violate P and T.

Assuming CPT to hold, CPviolated also.

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


EDMs: Whyis CPV so interesting?

  • CPV in the SM points to physics we do not understand

  • CPV is highly sensitive to physics beyond the SM (New Physics)

  • CPV is accessible to a wide range of experiments

  • New source of CPV beyond the SM required for baryogenesis

Physicsbeyondthe Standard Model (BSM)

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Outline2
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics what caused the baryon asymmetry
Physics:Whatcausedthe Baryon asymmetry?

Carina Nebula: Largest-seen star-birth regions in the galaxy

Whathappenedtothe antimatter?

Sakharov (1967): Three conditions for baryogenesis

B number conservation violated sufficiently strongly

C and CP violated, B and anti-Bs with different rates

Evolution of universe outside thermal equilibrium

The mysteryofthemissing antimatter (the puzzle ofourexistence)

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics potential of edms
Physics: Potential of EDMs

N. Arkani-Hamed (IAS, Princeton) atIntensityFrontier WS, USA (2011)

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics potential of edms1
Physics: Potential of EDMs

G. Isidoriat ESPP Open Symposium, Cracow (Sept. 2012)

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics: Potential of EDMs

J.M. Pendlebury: „nEDMhaskilledmoretheoriesthananyothersingleexpt.“

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics: Limits for Electric Dipole Moments

EDM searches– onlyupperlimitsyet(in )

Huge efforts underway worldwide to improve limits / find EDMs

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Physics: Ongoing/plannedSearches

new

P. Harris, K. Kirch … A huge worldwide effort

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Outline3
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicatedStorage Ring searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Principle: Frozen spin Method

Fortransverseelectricandmagneticfields in a ring ( ),

anomalousspin precession isdescribedbyThomas-BMT equation:

x

Magic condition: Spin alongmomentumvector

Foranysignof, in a combinedelectricandmagneticmachine

2. For(protons) in an all electric ring

(magic)

 Magic rings tomeasure EDMs offreechargeparticles

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Principle: Rings forsrEDMsearches

  • Place particles in a storage ring

  • Alignspinalongmomentum („Freeze“ horizontal spinprecession)

  • Search for time developmentofverticalpolarization

New Methodtomeasure EDMs offreechargeparticles:

Magic rings withspinfrozenalongmomentum

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


EDMs: Storage ring projects

pEDM in all electric ring at BNL

Jülich, focus on deuterons, or a combinedmachine

orat FNAL

(fromR. Talman)

CW and CCW propagatingbeams

(from A. Lehrach)

Twoprojects: US (BNL or FNAL) andEurope (FZJ)

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Beat systematics: BNL Proposal

2 beamssimultaneouslyrotating in an all electricring (cw, ccw)

CW & CCW beams cancels systematic effects

Status: ApprovedBNL-Proposal

Submittedto DOE

Goal forprotons

Manytechnologicalchallengesneedtobemet

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Principle: Magic Storage ring

A magicstorage ring forprotons (electrostatic), deuterons, …

B

Possible tomeasure, , usingONEmachinewithm

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Ccw ccw with magnetic field richard talmans concept for a j lich all in one machine
CCW & CCW withmagneticfield:Richard Talmansconceptfor a Jülich all-in-onemachine

Iron-free, current-only, magnetic bending, eliminates hysteresis

B

A

Configurationgeneratesclose-to-perfectverticalBfield

B

A

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Magic ring: Jülich all-in-onemachine(R. Talmansconcept)

B

Maximum achievablefieldofcoppermagnets T.

VerycompactmachinespossibleforsrEDMsearches

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Edms sensitivity reach
EDMs – Sensitivity Reach

EDM search in charged baryon (systems)

pEDM

dEDM

Adaptedfrom:

Nature,

Vol 482 (2012)

NodirectmeasurementsforprotonanddeuteronEDM yet !

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Outline4
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


srEDMsearches: Technogicalchallenges

  • Chargedparticle EDM searchesrequiredevelopmentof a newclassof high-precisionmachineswithmainlyelectricfieldsforbendingandfocussing.

  • Other topics:

  • Electric fieldgradients

  • Spin coherence time

  • Continuous polarimetry

  • Beam positioning

  • Spin tracking

These issues must beaddressedexperimentallyatexistingfacilities

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge: Electric field for magic rings

Rfieldonly

Challenge toproduce large electricfieldgradients

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge: Niobium electrodes

DPP stainlesssteel

fine-grainNb

Show oneslide on JLAB data HV devices

large-grainNb

single-crystalNb

large-grainNb

Large-grainNbatplateseparationof a few cm yields ~20 MV/m

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


“spin closed orbit vector”

makes one turn

“spin tune”

if ║

ring

stable polarization

A

Challenge: Spin coherence time

Spin closedorbit

one particle with

magnetic moment

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge spin coherence time
Challenge: Spin coherence time

Weusuallydon‘tworryaboutcoherenceofspinsalong

Polarization not affected!

Atinjection all

spinvectorsaligned (coherent)

After some time, spinvectorsget out ofphaseandfullypopulatethecone

Situation very different, whenyou deal withmachineswithfrozenspin.

Longitudinal polarizationvanishes!

Atinjection all spinvectorsaligned

Later, spinvectorsare out ofphase in the horizontal plane

In an EDM machine with frozen spin, observation time is limited.

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge sct stimates n n nikolaev
Challenge:SCT stimates (N.N. Nikolaev)

Onesourceofspincoherencearerandomvariationsofthespin tune

due tothemomentumspread in the beam

and

israndomizedby e.g., electroncooling

Estimate:

Spin coherence time for deuterons may be 𝟏𝟎𝟎× larger than for protons

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Edm at cosy cooler synchrotron
EDM at COSY: COolerSYnchrotron

Cooler andstorage ring for(polarized)protonsanddeuterons

Phase space

cooledinternal &

extractedbeams

COSY

… the spin-physics machine

for hadron physics

… an ideal startingpoint

for a srEDMsearch

Injector cyclotron

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge: First measurementof SCT

2011 Test measurementsat COSY

Polarimetry:

Spin coherence time:

from Ed Stephenson

and Greta Guidoboni

decoherence

time

oscillation

capture

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge sct recent achievements
Challenge: SCT recentachievements

Resultfrom 2012 run

from Ed Stephenson

and Greta Guidoboni

Excellentprogresstowardsthe SCT goalforpEDM:s

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Challenge: Polarimetry

Beam polarimetry atthe ppm levelachievedfordeuteronbeams

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Outline5
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Precursorexperiments: RF methods

Methodsbased on makingthespinprecession in themachine resonant withtheorbitmotion

Twoways:

Use an RF devicethatoperates on someharmonicsofthespinprecessionfrequency

Operate ring on an imperfectionresonance

Useexistingmagneticmachinesforfirstdirect EDM measurements

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Precursorexperiments:

ResonanceMethodwith „magic“ RF Wien filter

Avoidscoherent betatron oscillationsof beam.

Radial RF-E andvertical RF-B fieldstoobservespinrotation due to EDM

Approach pursuedfor a firstdirectmeasurementat COSY.

 „Magic RF Wien Filter“no Lorentz force

IndirectEDM effect

Tiltofprecession plane due to EDM

RF E(B)-field

In-plane polarization

Observable:

Accumulationofverticalpolarizationduringspincoherence time

stored d

Polarimeter (dpelastic)

  • Statistical sensitivityfor in therange to rangepossible.

    • Alignmentandfieldstabilityof ring magnets

    • Imperfectionof RF-E(B) flipper

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Precursorexperiments:

ResonanceMethodfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

  • EDM effect accumulates in

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Precursorexperiments:

ResonanceMethodfordeuteronsat COSY

Parameters: beam energy

assumed EDM

E-field

EDM effectaccumulates in

Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodofyields a sizebale.

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Precursorexperiments:

Resonance EDM measurementwith a static Wien filter

Machineisoperated on an imperfectionspinresonanceat

Spin rotation in phasewithorbitmotion

Similaraccumulationof EDM signal, systematicsmoredifficult, strengthofimperfectionresonance must besuppressedbyclosed-orbit corrections.

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Outline6
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Electric Dipole Moments

  • Physics Impact

  • Chargedparticle EDM searches

    • Concepts fordedicated Storage Ring Searches

    • Technological challenges

    • Precursor Experiments

  • Timelines ofprojects

  • Conclusion

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Timeline: BNL EDM

  • Technicallydrivenfor all-electricpEDM

15

18

12

13

14

16

17

19

20

21

Two years R&D/preparation

One year final ring design

Two years ring/beam-line construction

Two years installation

One year “string test”

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Timeline:

Stepwiseapproachall-in-onemachineforJEDI

Time scale: Steps1 and 2: < 5 years

Steps3 and 4: > 5 years

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Conclusion

  • Measurementsof EDMs areextremelydifficult, but fantastic BSM physicsreach

  • Twostorage ring projects, at BNL and Jülich

    • Jülich goesfor all-in-onemachinewithcopper-onlymagnets

  • Pursue SCT investigationsat COSY

  • VerygoodprospectsforfirstdirectEDM measurementsofandat COSYusingresonancemethodsbased on RF E(B) -fields

  • New JEDI collaborationestablished

  • BothCollaborationswork on technologicalchallenges: Polarimetry, SCT, E-fields, BPMs

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


“Man mußetwasNeuesmachen, um etwasNeueszusehen.”

“You have to make (create) something new,

if you want to see something new”

Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742-1799)

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


Spares
Spares

EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


srEDM cooperations

International srEDM Network

Institutional (MoU) and Personal (Spokespersons …) Cooperation, Coordination

srEDMCollaboration (BNL)

(spokespersonYannisSemertzidis)

JEDI Collaboration (FZJ)(spokespersons: A. Lehrach, J. Pretz, F.R.)

  • Common R&D

    • RHICEDM-at-COSY

  • Beam Position Monitors Polarimetry

  • (…) Spin Coherence Time

  • Cooling

  • Spin Tracking (…)

  • Study Group

    First directmeasurement

    Ring Design

    DOE-Proposal(submitted)

    CD0, 1, …

    HGF Application(s)

    pEDM Ring at BNL

    JEDI

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    M agnetic moment spin g and g
    Magneticmoment, spin, g and G

    Nuclearmagneton

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Operation of magic rf wien filter
    Operation of „magic“ RF Wien filter

    Radial E andvertical B fieldsoscillate, e.g., with(here).

    beam energy

    Spin coherence time maydepend on excitationand on chosenharmonics

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Simulation ofresonanceMethod

    with Magic Wien filterfordeuteronsat COSY

    Parameters: beam energy

    assumed EDM

    E-field

    Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodof.

    EDM effectaccumulates in

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Why also EDMs of protons and deuterons?

    Proton anddeuteron EDM experimentsmayprovideone order highersensitivity.

    In particularthedeuteronmayprovide a muchhighersensitivitythanprotons.

    • Consensus in the theoretical community:

    • Essential to perform EDM measurements on different targets with similar sensitivity:

    • unfold the underlying physics,

    • explain the baryogenesis.

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    History of neutron edm limits
    Historyofneutron EDM limits

    • Smith, Purcell, Ramsey PR 108, 120 (1957)

    • RAL-Sussex-ILL(dn 2.9 10-26ecm) PRL 97,131801 (2006)

    Adoptedfrom K. Kirch

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Magic condition: Protons

    Case 2: and fields

    magicenergy

    magicenergy

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Magic condition: Deuterons

    and fields

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Magic condition: Helions

    and fields

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Some polarimetry issues
    Some polarimetry issues

    • srEDMexperimentsusefrozenspinmode, i.e., beam mostlypolarizedalongdirectionofmotion,

    • most promising ring optionsusecw & ccwbeams.

    • scattering on C destructive on beam andphase-space,

    • scatteringon C determinespolarizationofmainlyparticleswith large betatron amplitudes, and

    • is not capabletodetermine .

    • Forelasticscattering longitudinal analyzingpowersaretiny (violatesparity).

    Ideally, use a methodthatwoulddetermine.

    pCanddC polarimetry isthecurrentlyfavoredapproachforthepEDMexperimentat BNL

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Exploit observables that depend on beam and target polarization
    Exploit observables thatdepend onbeam andtargetpolarization

    Spin-dependent differential crosssectionfor

    Analyzing power

    Spin correlations

    In scattering, necessary observables are well-knownin therangeMeV (not so foror).

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    How could one do that determine
    How couldone do that, determine?

    Detector

    CW

    CCW

    cell

    • Detector determinesofcw & ccwbeamsseparately, based on kinematics.

    • Alignmentoftargetpolarization along axesbymagneticfields. Leads tounwanted MDM rotations absolute no-goin EDM experiments.

    Suggestion 1: Use a polarizedstoragecelltarget

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    How could one do that determine1
    How couldone do that, determine?

    Detector

    Polarizedionsource(~10 MeV)

    • Collidetwoexternalbeamswithcwandccwstoredbeams.

    • Energycouldbetunedtomatchdetectoracceptance.

    • Polarizationcomponentsofprobinglow-energy beam canbemadelarge, wouldbeselectedbyspinrotators in thetransmissionlines.

    • Luminosityestimatesnecessary

    Suggestion 2: Usecolliding beam fromexternalsource

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    How could one do that determine2
    How couldone do that, determine?

    Detector

    CW

    CCW

    • Requiresluminosity, -functionsat IP shouldberathersmall.

    • Advantage oversuggestion 2. isthatsupportsluminosity.

    • Disadvantageisthatsensitivitycomesmainlyfromtermswithand.

    • Detailedestimatesnecessary.

    Suggestion 3: Usedirectlyreactionsfromcollidingbeams

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Luminosity estimate for the collider option
    Luminosityestimateforthecollideroption

    Conditions:

    Even undertheseveryoptimisticassumptions, event rate will beratherlow.

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    ResonanceMethodwith RF E-fields

    spin precession governedby:

    (* restframe)

    verticalpolarization

    RF E-field

    • Two situations:

      •  EDM effect

      •  no EDM effect

    stored d

    Polarimeter (dpelastic)

    • This way, the EDM signalisaccumulatedduringthecycle.

    • Statistical improvementoversingle turn effectisabout: .

    • Brings us in therangefor.

    • But: Flippingfields will leadtocoherent betatron oscillations, withhardto handle systematics.

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Simulation ofresonanceMethodwith RF E-fieldsfordeuteronsat COSY

    Parameters: beam energy

    assumed EDM

    E-field

    E-fieldreversedevery

    Constant E-field

    Numberofturns

    Numberofturns

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Simulation ofresonanceMethodwith RF E-fieldsfordeuteronsat COSY

    Parameters: beam energy

    assumed EDM

    E-field

    Linear extrapolationoffor a time periodof

    EDM effectaccumulates

    Polarimeter determines

    Numberofturns

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    Symmetries
    Symmetries

    Physical laws are invariant under certain transformations.

    • T-Symmetry:

    C-parity(or Charge parity):

    • Changessignof all quantizedcharges

    • electrical charge,

    • baryon number,

    • lepton number,

    • flavor charges,

    • Isospin (3rd-component)

    Parity:

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


    EDM Workshop at ECT* (Trento)

    October 1-5, 2012

    http://www.ectstar.eu/

    EDM Theory and Experiment: Search for new Physics beyond the Standard Model


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